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HERITAGE CONSULTING is the Main researcher and information source on Western Canadian Native/Fur Trade History and maintains more informa- tion on file than any other source. We specialize in Western Canadian Native and Historical information, but maintain files on over 2000 tribes. Our files are the most comprehensive on-line files on the history of Indian Tribes, the Fur Trade and Aboriginal/Fur Trade genealogies and biographies. We maintain the largest electronic data files and research files on Western Canadian Aboriginal and Fur Trade history and Genealogies on the internet. To date we now have - over 1,000,000 pages of information - biographies/histories on 600,000 westerners from before 1890 - comprehensive histories of over 30,000 tribes and bands In addition, our files are expanding into broader areas of world history and tribal peoples. Below is the MASTER DIRECTORY for ANTHROPOLOGY files currently existing in our Databank- Follow links for more detailed listings:
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Return to Heritage Consulting homepage BOOK REVIEWS Personal Documentary (Fidler) ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE CREMONA - SUNDRE AREA, ALBERTA Population and Land Use study BLANKETS AND BEADS (MacGregor) CANADA'S LAST WILD HORSES (Alison) CHIPPEWA INDIANS VI; A History of the Plains Cree Indian Territorial Expansion From the Hudson Bay to the Interior Saskatchewan and Missouri Plains; Garland Publishing, New York (Sharrock) COLONIAL CATAGORIES AND FAMILIAL RESPONSES TO TREATY AND METIS SCRIP POLICY: THE 'EDMONTON AND DISTRIC STRAGGLERS,' 1870-88 (Niemi-Bohun) EDMONTON SUN 500 YEARS OF INDIGINOUS RESISTANCE (Oh-Toh-Kin) HANDBOOK OF THE CANADIAN ROCKIES (Gadd) HIKING ALBERTA'S DAVID THOMPSON COUNTRY (Kariel) HISTORICAL RESOURCES IMPACT MONITORING AND MITIGATION CITY OF EDMONTON'S SOUTH LRT EXTENSTION BURIAL PROJECT ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH PERMIT 2008-16 (aka. 111 St. Burial) FINAL REPORT - An Assessment INDIAN DAYS ON THE WESTERN PRAIRIES (Barbeau) INDIANS IN THE FUR TRADE (Ray) INDIAN TRIBES OF ALBERTA (Dempsey) JIM BECKWOURTH: Exporer-Patriot of the Rockies (Cortesi) METIS CULTURE HISTORY (Garneau) NATIVE SITES IN WESTERN CANADA (Kramer) ORIGIN OF THE SWEAT LODGE (Welker) OUR ALBERTA HERITAGE (Hamilton) PEOPLE OF THE WOLF (Gear & Gear) PREHISTORIC CULTURAL DISTRIBUTION AND DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFTS IN WESTERN SOUTH ALBERTA (Fromhold) SACRED SITES OF THE WEST (Joseph) SASKATCHEWAN INDIAN HERITAGE (Pohorecky) SMALL MOMENTS IN TIME (Belliveau) THE ARAPAHO (Trenholm) THE GATEWAY THAT WON THE WEST (Brown) THE PLAINS CREE (Mandelbaum) THE STORY OF PASPASCES (Tyler) THE WESTERN CREE index THE WHITFORD PAPERS (Whitford) TRENT UNIVERSITY PHOTO FILE WHISKEY PEDDLER (Hunt) ====================================================================== FIDLER, Meralda 2004 Personal Documentary, University of Saskatchewan Generally a reasonably-well done and presented documentary such as are commonly found among the NFB about aboriginal personalities. Some good insights and comparisons about how different individuals see themselves and/or their native origin fitting into larger society. The only real BS came from one Cultural Instructor, Lagimoniere, who stated that the Lagimoniere family was one of the first and oldest settlers, and as such constitute Metis Royalty; What BS. J.B. didn't move west until 1800 and to Red River until 1803 - half a century after it was settled. 'Royalty' is a bit pretentious, made on the basis of being 'one of the first and oldest settlers' and kinship to Louis Riel. The Metis did not recognize any 'royalty' (although there is a contemporary tendency by Manitoba Metis to deify Louis Riel), except perhaps the Hunt leaders, which a Lagimoniere never was. Lagimoniere in fact has a bit of a sorid history. J.B. was a polygamist who abandoned his Indian/metis wife and was pursued by his Quebec wife (Marie-Anne Gaboury). He was a turncoat who betrayed the Metis cause in 1816 to help institute the British government in the settlement. It is claimed that Marie-Ann was the first 'white woman' in the set- tlement, and that Julie was the first 'white child' born in the west, but family portrairs show the family to be Metis. Oh, and just to keep you Riel-o-philes from bursting an artery about the above comment, here is what I have posted on another site about Big Louis: Who is the Greatest Canadian ? After considerable thought about the pros and cons, I came to the surprising (to me) conclusion that I would have to say Louis Riel (with Mistahe Maskwa as second) in spite of his well-advertised faults. Of all the politicians this country has had, NOBODY worked harder for the people, his constituents, than he did, with less reward, less thanks and less recognition. It was his dream that there be one Canada, a union of the Metis and Indian West with the French and English East. A land in which all were equal. There was no graft, no misappropriation of funds, no bellying up to the trough. Riel and Mistahe Maskwa (and Trudeau ?) had principles. Riel and Mistahe Maskwa lived by them and died by them, something no other Canadian politician has ever been willing to do. As for honorable mention to Trudeau. How I detested the man! But to give him his due, he was an honorable man; his tenure was not swamped by graft, corruption and scandal. I still don't like the man, but he stands head and shoulders as a man above the sewage that succeeded him. Sure as hell isn't Martin, Chretien, Mulroney or Harper!!! Peter & Mary Fiddler ======================================================================
MacGREGOR, James G. 1949 BLANKETS AND BEADS; The Institute of Applied Arts Ltd. Edmonton, Alberta; MacGregor's works beat the heck out of any other histories of the west that have been produced to date. Generally well done and well researched, hence reasonably accurate, particularly in information concerning the white man's history. Not always so good in Indian history. As MacGregor's were some of the first works in western history, they have stood up amazingly well and have not been rendered inaccurate by subsequent research. Maybe that's because there has been little subsequent research. MacGregor tends to be somewhat patronizing when speaking of Indians and Indian culture or ceremonies and has the annoying tendency to use the term 'Squaw' when referring to a native woman. To give him his due, MacGregor was one of the more liberal and less-racist of his day. Though there are specific errors in the book, to detail them is perhaps nitpicking. "Those were brave men and masterly who faced these perils, maintaining their suppremacy over swarms of savages..." (A.S. Morton in MacGregor 1949:98) "Primitive man, and all uncivilized men, have a fear of the unknown, and do not travel for the mere pleasure of it as does civilized man with his high-powered rifle. The savage prefers to stay within the bounds of a familiar locality." (MacGregor 1949:27) Some fairly strong cultural/racial biases here. If so, then why did the Cree visit the Arctic and Pacific. Why did the Mountain Cree travel to Hudson Bay and Lake Michigan? Why were the Blackfoot in New Mexico & on the Califonia coast? Why did the Iroquois & Soto migrate from the St. Lawrence to the Yukon and Oregon? "There was constant enmity between the Crees as a whole and the Blackfeet and Piegans, and the North Saskatchewan became the dividing line or frontier." (MacGregor 1949:41)(No. No such 'constant enmity' and no such 'frontier'; Fromhold) "five unrelated Indian languages: Blackfoot, Cree, Sioux, Saulteaux and Assiniboine (MacGregor 1954:218)(Cree, Soto & Blackfoot related; Sioux & Assiniboine almost identical; Fromhold) 1671-1780 HBCo are the only traders in the interior of Western Canada; has trappers practice conservation. (MacGregor 1949:84) No. French free traders were probably already in the west by 1660; had no control over trapping; Fromhold) 1700 c. "The Blackfeet, Bloods and Peigan laid claim to the prairies from the North Saskatchewan south into Montana and from the Eagle Hills...to about the line of the Lethbridge-Edmonton Railway." (MacGregor 1949::31) No. Blackfoot lands did not extend south of the Red Deer River; the Blackfeet (Siksika) did not yet exist as a tribe; Fromhold) 1742 La Verendrey's sons see the Rocky Mountains (MacGregor 1949:49 ) (actually on Jan 1, 1743; Fromhold) 1755-1770 Sask. R; HBCo men the only ones to winter on the river (MacGregor 1949:72) No. Ed. 1755 "A few years later the Blackfeet hated the white man in general. The feeling was reciprocated, and white men accused the Blackfeet of being murdering, crafty, and sly." (MacGregor 1954:261) (No such statments in the records; Fromhold) 1780 Traders out of Montreal begin to enter the Saskatchewan area (MacGregor 1949:84) Had been there since c1660; Fromhold) 1781 Lac La Ronge; Peter Pond kills John Woden, leading to his losing favour and being forced to retire from the west (MacGregor 1949:114)(Given by others as Mar '82 or '87 at Grand Rapids; did not retire until '87; Fromhold) 1793 South Branch House; Peigan or Gros Ventre plunder the post (MacGregor 1949:117)(Atsina not Peigan; Chesterfield Ho. not So. Br. Ho; Fromhold) 1799 RMHo. built by the NWCo. to serve the Peigan and Kootenay and to keep them away from their enemies the Cree; idea to build the post by Duncan M'Gillivray (MacGregor 1949:75)(Ktunaxa allies of the Cree; Fromhold) 1799/1800 David Thompson winters working on his map (MacGregor 1949:156)(Had barely started on his mapping; Fromhold) 1800 c. "Some generations earlier, (the Blackfoot) had been pushed back into Southern Alberta by the tribes of the north-east" (MacGregor 1949::30)(not likely; no evidence that the tribes to the NE conducted a war against the Blackfoot; had been at peace for over 100 years; Fromhold) 1810 Jan 20; Henry's criticism of the Cree because they preferred the pound rather than trapping "is the age-old difference in their philosophy of life between the hard-working white man and all indolent natives all over the world. The white race must work to make progress, while the other races are content just to live." (MacGregor 1949:97) 1820 by; Saskatchewan basin denuded of game and furs from Lake Winnipeg to the mountains (MacGregor 1949:85) Hardly. Proof? 1841 Edmonton; Fr. Thibault arrives (MacGregor 1949:221) Not til '42 1854 James Evans sends missionary Henry Bird Steinhauer west to establish a mission at Whitefish L. (MacGregor 1949:222)(Evans had already been dismissed by this time. Steinhauer went west in '55 to Lac La Biche; Fromhold) 1863 Smoky Lake; Thomas Woolsey begins building a mission; George McDougall suggests it be abandoned & a mission established at Victoria (MacGregor 1954:250)(In '63; Fromhold) 1863 McDougalls build Victoria Mission (MacGregor 1954:250 {03})(In '63. Ed. {03}) 1863 McDougalls build Victoria Mission (MacGregor 1954:250)(In '63. ; Fromhold) 1866 First white child in the west is born to Mr. & Mrs. John McDougall (MacGregor 1949:223) No. Abigaile was a Chippewa/Cree Indian & John a Metis. First white child likely 1806, Gunn; First white child in Alberta remains unknown; Fromhold) 1900 The only buffalo herd remaining is Wood Buffalo National Park (MacGregor 1954:98)(Wood Buffalo N.P. not established for another 2 decades; Fromhold) 1930 c. Robert Burns...one of his "intelligent Indians" (MacGregor 1949:66) ======================================================================
CANADA'S LAST WILD HORSES; article on Internet; ALISON, R.M., Dr.; 2000 This article was posted on Internet by someone who purports to be a Dr. R.M. Alison. Considering the poor historic research done here, I doubt the credentials. 1670 by; N. America; wild horses of Spanish descent "numbered in the millions, mostly Andaluz Spanish Mustangs" (Alison 2000 {07}) doubtful that within 100 years of escaping captivity the horses bred to have "millions" (Fromhold 2007 {07}) 1776 by; "by 1776 Assiniboines occupying southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan had amassed large herds of mustangs which were pastured untethered and unconfined on the prairie." (Alison 2000) Already recorded in the journals as having horses by 1742 (Fromhold) 1790 c. "Blackfeet, Bloods and Piegans occupying southern Alberta are thought to have acquired mustangs from the Shoshoni of the Colunbia River basin (Thompson 1850) through raiding." (Alison 2000 {07}); actually in the 1730's (Fromhold 2007 {07}) 1800 by; N. America; "there were several million wild mustangs in North America, about two million of which occurred in Canada (Howlett, pers.comm.)(Alison 2000 {07}) Canada; "millions of these horses occurred in western Canada." (Alison 2000 {07}) hardly; that would be more than 10 horses per man, woman and child (that is, 800-1,300 per family), which simply was not the case according to the records of the period (Fromhold 2007 {07}) 1809 post; "Thereafter, wild horses played a dominant role in the evolution of Plains Indian cultures. Wild free-ranging herds persisted, augmented by escapees from Native herds. Contemporary reports suggest that wild horses were more plentiful than bison in Canada in much of the 19th Century." (Alison 2000 {07}) No records I have ever seen (Fromhold 2007 {07}) ====================================================================== SHARROCK, Floyd W. & Susan R. 1974 A History of the Plains Cree Indian Territorial Expansion From the Hudson Bay Are to the Interior Saskatchewan and Missouri Plains; CHIPPEWA INDIANS VI; Garland Publishing, New York; The only publication to date that attempts to look at the early history of the Plains Cree as opposed to the white man's history of dealing with the Plains Cree, hence the best in it's field. Which, unfortunately, leaves something to be desired. Overall not too bad, but suffers from some glaring misconceptions. 1. The Cree are not indiginous the the west; this is the generally held view held by past historians, based on the fact that the Cree were first encountered in Ontario. Ignore the mound of data that indicates that the Cree were indiginous in the west. 2. The Cree intruded into the west because they deplted their own areas of furs and food in pursuit of furs for the fur trade. I.E. they were too dumb to look after their property and too much in want of beads. 3. The Cree moved west in direct relationship with the fur trading posts in the west. 4. Western history effectively begins with the arrival of the Hudson's Bay Company posts; they are apparently unaware that there were other predecessors and other companies, and consistently misnames NWC personnel and posts as HBC. 5. The Cree were dependant on the trading posts and would have starved had they not been able to obtain food from the posts; totally ignoring the fact that the Cree were the main suppliers pemmican for the subsistence of the posts and the fur transport system. Besides, Beaver and Muskrat are traditional Cree foods. 5. The Cree were so acculturated that they were unable to hunt with bow & arrow by 1820. Actual records suggest that only 1 in 5 had some form of gun at the best of times. Also, records show that the trading posts could'nt sell metal traps, because the Cree preferred to use the traditional trapping method (much to the annoyance of traders). 6. There were no buffalo left in Canada after 1820. But isn't that exactly what the fur trade was about on the Canadian plains until 1880? 8. That Cree bands dispersed in winter because buffalo herds did. Herds wintered en masse in the woodlands bordering the Saskatchewan River; Cree had large hunting camps & even tribal camps of 10,000 during the winter. 9. Southern Indians are often identified not as Cree, but as Nakoda It appears at times that Sharrock & Sharrock confuse events of the late 1870's and 1880's with earlier times, and seem to believe that the situation at that time represented the normal situation. On the other hand, they make an interesting argument to the effect that from 1800 to 1850 the Cree were the dominant group on the middel Missouri, into central Montana, a view not held by other historians and perhaps worth more investigation. 1835 by; Buffalo robes the main item of trade at...Fort Assiniboine (Ft. Assiniboine (MT) not yet built) 1869 Northern Buffalo Herd extends...north to Great Slave Lake... and to 8,000' in the Rockies (The North Herd did not extend as far north as Lesser Slave Lake; from the Swan Hills north it was the Woods Bison. Bison remains found at 8,000 are woods bison. (Fromhold) ====================================================================== KARIEL, Pat & Eric Schneider 1995 Hiking Alberta's David Thompson Country; Greenway Press, Calgary (Reprint); Not much about early history, but generally one of the better books in it's class. 1700-1800 Blackfoot, Sarcee, Stoney, Cree, Kootenay, Gros Ventre & Shoshoni distribution & data given by Kariel & Schneider (1995:15-20 {P}) is full of errors and has large inaccuracies. ======================================================================
EDMONTON SUN The Edmonton Sun has made some attempt at running Albertan History acticles since December of 2004. It is definately a nice touch, and an improvement over totally ignoring Alberta history. Unfortunately, each and every article that deals with Aboriginal and Fur Trade history prior to 1890 is abysmally inaccurate, indicating a total lack knowlege. Having been made aware of these shortcomings, they have also displayed a total lack of interest in getting it right. Most of these articles are sponsored by the ATCO corporation, which is also aware of the inaccurate nature of the articles, and has shown the same lack of interest. Below are some of the more glaring blunders perpetuated by the EDMONTON SUN. 2005 ALBERTA CENTENNIAL; Aug 28 special issue Regrettably, I received the Centennial Special with some disappointment. Of 80 pages, less than two had anything to do with Alberta History prior to 1890, and that little bit consisted of the usual patronizing platitudes, stereotyes, as well as the mistakes that the Sun has been noted for in it's coverage of early history. There is the nice story of the origin of the Tsuu T'Ina (Sarcee), which happens to be shared by 6 other unrelated tribes. There is the statement that Natives have been on the Alberta Plains for an astounding 3,200 years - when it is currently accepted Archaeology that early man has been in the Americas for at least 35,000 years, and Alberta has archaeological sites that date back 15,000 years (and some debateable sites as early as 120,000 years). When it is becoming accepted prehistory that the ancestral Cree/Blackfoot were the Ice-Front people in Alberta some 15,000 years ago. 3,200 years ago it was the ancestors of the Apache and Navaho that passed through on their way south - and not the Tsuu T'Ina. According to the Tza Tinne (Beaver People), the Tsuu T'ina were founded around 1650 A.D. long after the Apache/Navaho had passed through, their remnants in Alberta becoming the Kutenai) in the civil war that they remember as the Dog Piss On Arrow War, to which the Notikewin River alludes. It would really be nice if your writers checked their historal facts before it goes into print. Being a Quebec-owned company it is perhaps not surprising that they know little of western history - but you'd think they would at least the the Francophone aspects right. October 7, 2005 "ALBERTA IN THE 20th CENTURY". "The Blackfoot Befriend Henday - 1754" 1. The Blackfoot did not "befriend" Henday by any stretch of the definition. They met him, talked with him, and treated him in the correct manner that was due to a guest. Chief (Henday does not name the chief, but we know his name by other means) cut short the meeting and told them it was time to move on. Henday had no further contact with ANY Blackfoot excepting meeting them again 6 months later when the Cree he was traveling with (xxxx's and xxxxx's bands of the ASINI WACHI, though Henday does not directly mention them), stopped at the Blackfoot camp. 2 The Blackfoot "- the only one whose eventual tribal range would fall almost entirely within Alberta". The Blackfoot had as much or more territory outside Alberta as within AT ALL TIMES. The DENE THA, TZA TINNE, TSUU T'INA and several western "Iroquois" bands, on the other hand, were almost exclusively "Alberta Indians". 3. The Naywattamee "were probably Blackfoot". The Cree name for the Blackfoot is AYACHIW INIW-WAK and always has been (usually transcribed in the early journasl as EARCHITHINUE or some such word). The Naywattamee (NIYA WATI INEW) were the Atsina, the ("They Live in Holes People") being the name for a branch of the Atsina. The Cree specifically used this term for the SIKSIKA tribe and the Blackfoot collectively, MIKOW for the Kainai and PIKUNI for the Pikuni. 4. Kelsey "heard from the Cree and Assiniboine about a fearsome enemy tribe" the Naywattamee. Nowhere in Kelsey's journal does he make such a statement concerning the Naywattamee. Rather, it suggests the Cree tended to despise them, and relentlessly made war on them. 5. The legend of the origin of the three Blackfoot tribes is one of several, and not the most prominent version. Ethnographically, there was no such thing as "guarding the borders" among the Blackfoot or any Northern Plains tribes. It simply does not register in the history of their warfare. According to the version accepted by the Blackfoot, the seperation was because of a scarcity of game at the time. 6. "He in turn noticed how proud and independent the southerners had become and named them Kainai, or "many chiefs"..." The Kainai were not the Southerners. The Pikuni were the southerners. According to the Siksika and Pikuni, the Kainai received the name Many Chiefs because they were arrogant, pretentious and quarrelsome, each man actubg as though he were a chief. 7. "The whites called them Bloods, probably for the red ochre dye..." The name Blood comes from the Cree MIKO (usually recorded wrongly by whites as Mithco), meaning 'Blood, Red'. The actual form of the word, as properly modified, is MIKO-EW, meaning "They are Bloody". No Cree would ever traslate the word in this context as "Red". 8. "It is now believe all these migrating plains came from the western Great Lakes country..." The usual chauvinistic claptrap that is still prevalent among some that the Indian has not been here more than 2,000 years, and could not possibly have developed any but the most rudimentary culture without outside help. The Blackfoot have always claimed they came from the north. It is now believed that the Blackfoot and Cree were the original Ice-front people who followed the receeding ice 16,000 years ago, and have been in the Alberta area ever since. 9. "The Blackfoot led the way into the grasslands to the north, while the Sioux and Cheyenne were concentrated in the south." Evidence indicates that the ancestors of the Cree and Blackfoot were the ice-front people from the Rocky Mountains to Labrador. In Alberta those on the northwest developed into the Blackfoot out of the Besant Culture. In Saskatchewan and east they became identified as Cree. The Sioux are not of a common origin with these Algonkian tribes. The Cheyenne were a branch of the Cree. Their Sioux name SAIYELA means "Little/lesser Cree". Their Cree name is NEHI YA-WE-WAK, "Cree Speakers/They Speak Our Language". The two languages are still mutually intellegible with a little effort. Blackfoot and Cree, on the other hand, are not quite mutually intellegible but still contain many similarities. Sept 21, 2005 Re: 1763 An American 'Finds' Alberta, ALBERTA IN THE 20th CENTURY As usual, this article is full of crap, for lack of a more genteel suitable word. Still batting 100% wrong. Issues at hand are: 1. 1763? what does this have to do with 1763. Pond didn't arrive in 'Alberta' until 1778. 2. Alberta was 'found' considerably earlier. First by un-named French traders from whom were descended Wapenesew (born pre 1700) and Kona Wapa (born c.1705). Secondly by Anthony Henday, who wintered west of Red Deer in 1754-55. Third, fouth, fifth, etc. by Isaac Batt, William Pink and others (1755-1770). 3. "Pond's key accomplishement was the discovery of a 13-mile trail in northwestern Saskatchewan" Actually, the first recorded use of this trail (Methy Portage) was by Wapenesew in 1715, somewhat before Pond. The second known use was by Francois Beaulieau, who was a resident on the Athabasca River in 1778, and who was Pond's guide. 4. "The ruts made by Pond's Red River carts..." Pond did not use carts. No records exist of carts ever having been successfully transported in canoes. Nor of oxen. Or horses. The Red River Cart was not to be developed for another 60 years. The first use of oxen - followed by carts - on this portage was not made for another 100 years by Henry Moberly, who also cut the first cart trail across the portage. Truly amazing how these articles can be so consistently wrong. I would have thought it to be virtually a statistical impossibility (like failing a multiple choice quiz). I suppose their other articles are all as rigorously researched before publication ? September 18, 2005 Just read your recent article on Alberta History: 1800 - Our French Connection, ALBERTA IN THE 20'th CENTURY Your consistency is amazing. Still 100% incorrect when dealing with Alberta history prior to 1890. Really, you would be doing Alberta History a real service if you quit printing these spurious 'history' articles. Items of error: 1. The voyageur came from Quebec. Yes and no. Mostly No. Yes, they were referred to as 'Canadians', but most were by this time already Metis, usually Chippewa, Ojibway or Iroquois and from Quebec only by association. Most had been residents at Detroit, Michilimackinac, Sault St. Marie or points west and had been born in the west. 2. He was unknown on the southern grasslands. No. He was well represented there. Several Metis from Edmonton were partners in the American Fur Company, Astoria Fur Company, Rocky Mountain Fur Company, etc. In fact, many of the Metis from Edmonton ended up on the Missouri and Platte Rivers. The Manager at Fort Hall was born in Edmonton to a local woman and related to half the Mountain Cree. Numerous families from Edmonton were found on the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers. Bird's Rapids on the Missouri were named after a Metis from Edmonton. The Laramie River is named after a family from the Peace River. One of these Metis became a Riverboat Pilot on the Missouri before returning home to pioneer riverboats on the Saskatchewan. Discovery of the South Pass in Wyoming in 1826 was made by Sublette - guided by "Cree" who showed him the route. Cree and Metis from Edmonton were already trapping on the Snake river by that time. By 1840 these 'French Halfbreeds' were prominent at the Mountainman rendezvous in Wyoming. Paintings of them show them dressed in Cree and Chippewa outfits common to the Saskatchewan River. At Fort Laramie they were sometimes referred to as 'French Indians' in the 1840's. They often visited St. Louis, Missouri, where one of them - originally from Rocky Mountain House - operated the Rocky Mountain House Pub. Cree Metis escorted Fr. De Smet from the Green River north to Colville. 3. "Usually traveling by pairs in 12-foot canoes, each man weighed down with two 90-pound bundles of f fur...." The North Canoes were around 18-20 feet long, were operated by 6 voyageurs (bowman, steersman and 4 'bouts'), and carried 2 Tons. The 2-man jobs were personal canoes for home use. Aug 2005: Father Lacombe (see also Feb 26 issue) 1. Father Lacombe built the first bridge west of Red River in 1864. Father Lacombe never built any bridges. He ordered the parishioners of St. Albert to build a bridge. It was not the first bridge in Alberta. The first recorded bridge was near Rocky Mountain House in 1802, but it was probably a rather simple affair. In 1841 the Sinclair Party built temporary bridges across the streams between Fort Pitt and Edmonton, but they were washed away the next spring. In 1845 the future chiefs Bobtail and Ermineskin and their brothers, from the Mountain Cree, built the first recorded 'permanent' cart bridge in Alberta. Lacombe's bridge was the first - and only - Toll Bridge built in the west. 2. Father Lacombe has had some good PR people in the past century, but they were not always accurate with the truth, and he has been given credit for work done by others, notabley by Fr. Scollen, who established the first school in Alberta and was a constant and beloved companion of the Mountain Cree and Nakoda. How popular Lacombe was is open to question. In the battle of 1865 where he was slightly wounded in battle between the Cree and Blackfoot, the Cree version of events make little fuss over Lacombe's presence - and they in fact made fun of him, running off with his cassock and other accroutements, being worn by some of the warriors mocking him. Aug 2005 1. John Rowand was called "Big Mountain" not because he was so highly respected but because he weighed in at over 600 pounds. 2. The Rowand Saga, of how this devoted Indian girl rescued him, nursed him and eventually became his wife is a touching frontier drama. It is somewhat shattered by the fact that in their 50 years of marriage Rowand never once recorded her name. Furthermore, Rowand did not allow the women to eat with the men. Her name - recorded by a visitor - was Louise, daughter of one of the first HBCo traders in the west, who had abandoned his family shortly after her birth. 3. Rowand may have died of Heart Attack, but it was listed as Apoplexy - that is, having a major tantrum, berating one of his men and foaming at the mouth. He was not missed much by the locals. A surviving journal from Fort Edmonton records that "not a tear was shed" by the staff and residents of the fort on his demise. The eventual interment of his remains in Montreal - by way of being taken to York Factory and England first - is itself an interesting story. He was interred thousands of miles away from his loyal wife and children. May 22, 2005 " Stampede to Staveley: ALBERTA IN THE 20TH CENTURY: 1931" Not sure where the information on the Lemon Mine came from - it certainly does not agree with the recorded and reported history (see Fromhold 1974, 1975, 1976, 1995, 1998; Primrose, Riley & Dempsey n.d.; Eskrick 1969:55; Hamilton 1977:33-39; Bearspaw 1956). 1. The parties were not "Black Jack Lemon", but Black Jack and Lemon. 2. The two stonies involved in the story were William & Daniel Bendow. No Indians by that name were ever recorded in Bearspaw's Band - or in any other band in Western Canada/U.S. 3. The Stonies reputedly witnessed the murder of Blackjack and overnight "haunted" Lemon, causing him to go insane. There is no record anywhere that they sold Lemon food and horses. The Stonies told their stories to Chief Bearspaw, from whom King Bearspaw heard the story. The Blackjack/Lemon incident is based on King Bearspaw's account. 4. Lemon did not disappear into the mountains. Lemon arrived at Wild Horse Plains (BC), where he launched several parties parties to return to the motherlode - but went insane each time they neared the Livingstone Range. Periodic expeditions set out in search of the 'Lost Lemon Mine' but all were reputedly turned back by some catastrophe. A certain Lemon also showed up at Fort Macleod in what might have been a related incident. "1850 -The First Albertans, ALBERTA IN THE 20TH CENTURY; page 20 of the Wednesday issue. Firstly, in 1850 there were 13 aboriginal homelands, not 3, in Alberta (in 1650 there were 19). Each tribe was an autonomous Nation and so recognized by the first arriving Europeans. The statement "fierce as the wolf" is a slanderous statement, bordering on hate literature. There was relatively little violence. Among the so-called "warrior tribes" of the northern plains an average of 1.5 persons per year was killed in warfare in a 200 year period - the gross number of those killed in warfare being less than in the average skrimish in Europe or the U.S. Civil war during that time. Chief Sweetgrass had a choice reprimand for Father Lacombe, stating that the whites were applying a double standard when referring to Indian warfare, noting that the numbers of those killed in the average Euro battle would have wiped out an entire tribe among the Indians. "the broad, silty-grey Peace and Slave rivers...flowed north to the barren country...." Apparently the author has never traveled along the Peace- Mackenzie River, or he would know that one is hard-pressed to find "barren country" even along it's northernmost few miles, aside from the beaches. "Upriver of the Cree, as far as the Rockies, lived the Assiniboine...." This is another miscon-ception of the white man, not borne out by historical fact. The Mountain Cree were recorded living among the Kutenai as early as 1650. At that time there were not yet ANY Nakoda in the west. At the time ATSPU and SISIP PIMOTEWIW were recorded as heading two mixed Cree-Kutenai bands living in southwestern Alberta. Nakoda are first recorded in eastern Alberta in 1690. In 1754 Mountain Cree under KONA WAPA were living in the Rocky Mountain House area (the ASINI WACHI NEHIYAWAK band), with ATIK ASIS' mixed Cree-Blackfoot band to the south. No Nakoda. A small band of Nakoda, the CHAN TONGA, at the time lived in the Edmonton area, north of the river - where their descendants are still to be found among the Alexis and Paul bands. All other Nakoda were to be found east of the lower Battle River. The first Nakoda family in the foothills was ASINI Larocque's family in 1810, affiliated with Two Dogs' ASINI WACHI NEHIYAWAK (Mountain Cree) band. The current Chiniki and Goodstoney Band prior to 1846 were part of PESEW's band of ex-fur trade employees (including Cree, Metis, Ottawa, Iroquois and others), married to CHAN TONGA Nakoda women. Gabriel Dumont's Metis band, also part of PESEW's group, was also married to CHAN TONGA women. These Nakoda, along with Larocque's Band, did not become seperate and independent bands until after PESEW's death in 1846. Abraham NIPI KOKAPAW, the founder of the Goodstoney Band, continued to be found with Bobtail's band (PESEW's son), for another decade. Bearspaw's Band did not arrive in the west until 1840, fleeing the smallpox at Fort Union under the noted chief CHAT KA. "The fierce Blood, Peigan, Blackfoot, Gros Ventre and Sarcee." Yes and no. The Cree started more fights (mostly with the Blackfoot) than the Blackfoot tribes - and won more. The TSUU T'INA (Sarcee) NEVER started a fights but were the most fierce and successful in battle. On the average, there was less than one intertribal clash a year involving more than 10 persons. "...tribal movements for most of that period can be estimated only archaeologically...." While this is substantially correct, it is the same as saying that '...although Man has been around for some 4,000,000 years (or Man has been in Europe for 45,000 years, tribal movements for most of that period can be estimated only archaeologically. For the date of 1850 it is abysmally incorrect. We can 'estimate' tribal movements quite well for Archaeological cultures in the province from as early as 10,000 years ago. We can 'estimate' quite well the movements the Shoshone tribe, or the Strongbow Tribe in Alberta in the late 17th. Century. We have a fairly good idea of SISIP PIMOTEWIW.s bands' movements of the same time period (and know quite a bit about SISIP PIMOTEWIW himself). We know the seasonal movements of ATIK ASIS' fairly well, including the band's trips to York Factory for the 1740's. We know the movements of KONA WAPA's ASINI WACHI NEHIYAWAK band in detail by the week (and by the day for some years) from 1750 to 1770 - including his chastisement of Governor Graham at York Factory for selling shoddy goods and shortchanging his people, and a trip by the band to Michilimackinac on Lake Michigan. We know the population sizes of the various bands from as early as 1600 on. We know the names of members of Two Dogs' Band for 1790. Beginning this decade we can track Blackfoot bands into New Mexico and to the beaches of California. Spaniards, Mexicans and Southwest Indians came to live with them (one of Crowfoot's wives was a Comanche). Numerous births and country marriages are recorded for Alberta beginning just before 1790. Their descendants are traceable to this day. By this time we can track the history of numerous families into the present day. Pierre Leblanc in 1800 became the first non-local to cross the Rocky Mountains between the Peace River and New Mexico. He was the son of Francois Leblanc, one of the first French traders recorded on the North Saskatchewan (working for La Verendrey in 1743), and his Chippewa wife. We know the names of the some 140 founding members of PESEW's band in 1820 and can follow the subsequent history of these families. (Laramie, Wyoming, is named for one of these people.) The band occasionally visited Fort Union (ND), Helena (MT) and Colville (WA). PESEW himself was from the Detroit area and had spent some years on Lake Athabasca and at Red River. By 1850 we can accurately track most Alberta bands, and know the daily history of several thousand individuals. Certainly the Native History of Alberta is much better known than the writer of the above mentioned article seems to be aware of. February 26, 2005 "The First Missionary, ALBERTA IN THE 20TH CENTURY" 1. "Methodist Missionary Robert Rundle and his wife Mary were welcomed by the Cree and Blackfoot." a. Rundle was single when he came west. He did not marry Mary until after his return to England in 1848. His notes suggest that he was severely tempted while on mission (and there are some questions about his relationship with the boy Benjamin Maski Pitonew), and there was the beginning of a relationship with Mary Sinam, but Rundle could not allow himself to have a relationship with a heathen and not his social equal, which to a large extent contributed to his deteriorating mental health. 2. "Catholic priests en route to Fort Vancouver stopped at Fort Edmonton in 1838" a. This implies that these were the first missionaries. The Anglican minister, Rev. H. Beaver, stopped here in 1836 on the way to Victoria, B.C. 3. Rowand "for the rest of his career railed against what he saw as the meddling clergy" a. Rowand always continued to treat the missionaries well, giving them free lodging and meals, transportation, interpreters, and so on. Rowand had a reputation for "railing" against everyone; he died of 'appoplexy' while railing against one of his voyageurs. As one of his men said, "No one shed any tears to see his passing." 4. Father Lacombe "publicly rebuked the Methodist minister for the pitiless way he drove his men." a. Lacombe may be remembered as a saint today, but the reality may have been different. He would not bunk in the same room as a protestant. He had his parishoners build a bridge at St. Albert, and charged them for the use of it. He would not give absolutions and last rites without being paid first. b. Rundle was exceptionally inept in being able to manage undertakings, and except for his penchant for not working on Sunday - a firm conviction held also by the Catholic missionaries - simply went with the flow, more-or-less tagging along. 5. Rundle "eventually mastered" the Cree language. a. Far from it. He did become conversational in it and learned to write syllabics. Unfortunately, more often than not, his transcriptions are undecipherable today to Cree speakers and those who can read and write syllabics. 6. "he was hailed as a messenger who had descended from the sky on a piece of paper". a. Not really. The only allusion to this is that Rundle had stated that he had heard that someone had said that they had heard that Rundle came down from the heavens in a piece of paper that was sent to the Hudson's Bay Company. The native community has historic traditions that say that the coming of Rundle had been foretold to Native leaders by precognition. February 27 "The 'Republic' of St. Albert, ALBERTA IN THE 20TH CENTURY" 1. "The 'Republic' of St. Albert" a. St. Albert's constitution was a minicipal charter, not a Republican charter. 2. "the townsfolk approached the Hudson's Bay Company, owner of the whole region" a. The Hudson's Bay Company did not own or have title to any land in western Canada. The Charter of the Hudson's Bay Company was solely for the right of trade, and they were not given any land rights other than the right to establish trading posts. By occupation, the land was the property of the aboriginal residents, though the British Crown claimed a suzerainity over the county and residents thereof. Aboriginal title was recognized by the Biritsh Crown in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 which clearly states that the lands belong to the aboriginal peoples and could not be alienated from them except by treaty with the British Crown. As a condition to the formation of Canada, the British Crown required that this provision be recognized and honored. 3. "Murderers were to be escorted to Red River..." a. This provision was only enacted in 1870 after the appointment of Commissioners and Justices of the Peace by the Government of Canada, which at the time did not yet have any legal juresdiction to do so west of Manitoba. 4. "The "St. Albert Code" edured...until the laws of Canada arrived with the North West Mounted Police. a. All western communities and aboriginal bands operated by an indiginous code of laws and fines. b. The Government of Canada had no legal administrative status in the west outside of it's own institutions, until the signing of treaties gave them some degree of such roles between themselves and the signators. c. The Mounted Police tended to ignore existing community laws - such as the authority of duly constituted authorities to manage and police hunting rules and administer fines - often to the detriment of the very purpose they were here. They were quickly perceived in the aboriginal community as being both ignorant and biased in the way they dealt with local issues. d. The Mounted Police recognized that they had no authority over the aboriginal peoples, and generally did not attempt to enforce Canadian Law on them until such time as the aboriginals had been forced onto reservations by starvation. ======================================================================
NIEMI-BOHUN, Melanie 2009 Colonial Catagories and Familial Responses to Treaty and Metis Scrip Policy: The 'Edmonton and District Stragglers,' 1870-88; CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW 90:1p71-98 March 2009; University of Toronto Press There is something in there, but I am not sure that there is any new contribution to what we already know to either historical study, of to Anthropological social theory. There is a further question about how well the author knows the subject group being discusses. The author does not appear to have looked at the Edmonton Straggler membership in detail. Although these lists indeed contain mainly females and their families, there are certainly more than one male listed on these lists - including several men recognized in the native community as 'chiefs'. The author states that even these withdrew from treaty; actually they were transfered to Paspaschew Band and Lapatak Band; Lapatak (Enoch) Band was formed under one of these men. To a large degree these are women who's male members are absent with the Edmonton Brigade and with Kiskiyew's band pursuing the buffalo into Montana. A few are unable to travel due to age and infirmity, and a few are married to non-natives with landholdings at Edmonton and/or employed with the government or Hudson's Bay Company. The author states that 'stragglers' were individuals who did not belong to a band. Untrue. Every one of them belonged to a band. They were members who remained at Edmonton because they lacked the mobility to accompany their band, because their men were off on other assignment, or beause their band of origin resided elsewhere, while their family had moved to Edmonton for some purpose or other. The 'Straggler' band was a term of convenience (based on other historic use of the term around trading posts) to lump assorted Treaty Indians into an administrative/pay unit, but not to recognize a Chief thereof, to minimize the 'band's' political influence. Individuals on the Edmonton Straggles lists have been largely identified and their histories known. The author notes that between 1880 and 1885 most Edmonton Stragglers withdrew from Treaty to take Metis status, but most were trasfered to Papaschew's and the new Lapatak/Enoch bands (the latter having been largely formed from Kiskiyew's band, not an independent band in the Treaty process). Also that this was on account of the preference not to participate in a "reserve life". No reserves, let alone a "reserve life" existed in the Edmonton area until 1885 or later. Many of these members already had their own home- steads and farms, which would now have to be abandoned. Spring of 1885 was a high-stress period for "Indians" in Edmonton - most Indians choosing to remain away from the town due to the perceived danger to life. This was immediately post-Frog Lake, and Edmonton was occupied by the Canadian militia who were intensely hostile to "Indians". Moreso than against the Metis, most of whom in the Edmonton area actually volunteered for military service. In late May the Mounted Police tortured, murdered and butchered Mi Minahik Cardinal just east of Edmonton, and had been repulsed by the "Indians" at Fort Pitt and at Frenchman's Butte. On June 2nd the Mounted Police were shooting Indian women and children at Loon Lake, having failed to massacre the camp by catching it sleeping. The author also referrs to the report that 799 members left Treaty between 1885 and 1888 as support for part of the support for the thesis. The bulk or these, of course, were Kiskiyew's band withdrawing from treaty en masse with Kiskiyew's 1885 repudiation of their adhesion in the wake of the 1885 rebellion. Great reliance is placed on the analysis and history of Mary Norris, aka. Kayatowe. However, the author appears not to know that Kayatowe is in fact Mary Kaytowe Pelletier, born at Edmonton, and sister to John Norris' business partners. The author notes that she was born Kayatowe, but was in fact Mary (1). Most of the Pelletier (aka. Belcher) family took Metis Scrip. In footnote 1 (p. 72) the author goes into the issue of Mary Norris' status as "Head of Family", "Mrs." and her legitimacy or acceptance as the wife of John Norris. This is a moot point, with the various government agents and churchmen having their own peculiar ideological takes on these issues; there was no question in the eyes of the aboriginal community about the validity of common-law "country wives" marriages; furthermore, Mary and John Norris were legitimately 'churched'. This is a semantic argument that has relevance only to non-natives. Niemi-Bohun goes throught a number of complex and fantastic gyrations to explain "why was the wife of a prominent European businessman collecting a small annuity." Niemi-Bohun 2009:95 {11}) By applying Oxam's Razor we can reduce this to the simpelest likely answer, which would be "why not?". (Fromhold 2011 {11}) For the rest of it, these are meanderings in what most of us refer to as B.S. (British Social) Athropology. No doubt it has some theoretical import, but after 50 years, I still have yet to see a point to much of it. As a member of the aboriginal community, the first to practice Applied Anthropology in Alberta, and a Traditionalist, it all sounds like a bunch of irrelevant drivel to me. (1) 1840, Mary born to Kayattowe & Josephte (Chatelain) Pelletier at Edmonton. 1885-86 CAN/AB; Edmonton Stragglers "took full advantage of this opportunity to receive a financial benefit and renounce their Indian status by withdrawing from treaty to apply for Metis status Niemi-Bohun 2009:92 {11}) Actually most Edmonton Stragglers were transfered to Paspaschase's band. When the Paspaschasew Band sold their reserve most Edmonton Stragglers were transfered to Lapatak band or other bands. It Was mostly Paspaschew's band that took Metis Status, and KISKIYEW's Band with WITHDREW from Treaty (Fromhold 2011 {11}) 1876 CAN/AB, Edmonton (?); Mrs. Jeannie Meavor takes Treaty; Indian Agent Dickieson puts her in the Paspaschew band Niemi-Bohun 2009:92 {11}) Is often listed as being absent from annuity payments Niemi-Bohun 2009:93 {11}) Paspaschew's band did not exist in 1876. Jeannie Meaver aka. Annie Meaver likely absent as the family was absent in the search of food or economic opportunity, following the buffalo south Niemi-Bohun 2009:93 {11}) Husband a freighter for the HBC Niemi-Bohun 2009:93 {11}) Meaver, Annie () 1838- FtE/EdS>MET Meaver, William 1831- SCO>FtE/EdS (Fromhold 2011 {11}) 1880 CAN/AB, Paspaschew Band; Jeannie Meavor transfered to Edmonton Stragglers by Wadsworth Niemi-Bohun 2009:92 {11}) likely to accomodate Treaty Indians who did not wish to live on a reserve Niemi-Bohun 2009:92n56 {11}) No reserves exist in Alberta at this time (Fromhold 2011 {11}) Meaver, Annie () 1838- FtE/EdS>MET Meaver, William 1831- SCO>FtE/EdS (Fromhold 2011 {11}) 1885-88 CAN/AB, Hobbema Agency; 799 withdraw from Treaty status (Niemi-Bohun 2009:72 {11}); Hobbema Indian Agency Series, M4433, Glenbow Archives). These were mainly Bobtail's Band (Fromhold 2011 {11}) 1876-1879 CAN/AB, Edmonton; 50 persons later on the Edmonton Stragglers paylist paid with other bands: Passpasschase, Alexander, Alexis, Bobtail and Michel (Niemi-Bohun 2009:77 {11}) (Treaty Annuity Paylists (1876) vol. 9412; (1877) file 9153; volume 9412 (1878-1879) vol. 1677; (1879) vol. 9413; (1880) vol. 9414, RG10, LAC {11}) Because they were at that time members of that band, not because they were stragglers or without bands (Fromhold 2011 {11}) 1878 CAN/AB, Edmonton; first Edmonton Stragglers paylist; 27 individuals (Treaty Annuity Paylists vol. 9412:480-481 RG10, LAC); men, women & children from other bands who were in the Edmonton vicinity at the time. (Niemi-Bohun 2009:77 {11}) Actually in Sept. 1877 (Fromhold 2011 {11}) 1875 CAN/AB, Hand Hills; Rev. George McDougall helps Treaty Six negotiations by visiting Indian camps to record their concerns and determine the number of bands that would be involved (Niemi-Bohun 2009:86 {11}) Mcdougall could not speak Cree or Nakoda. He apparently did not do a good job, for 3/4 of the Treaty 6 Indians were not invited to the Treaty 6 negotiations: these were the Catholic and non- christian bands (Fromhold 2011 {11}) McDougall, George Milward, Rev. 1820-76 ONT>NIP>CRE/Vic>FtE (Fromhold 2011 {11}) 1875 fall; CAN/AB, Hand Hills; "Cree leaders wanted the Canadian government to support existing chieftainships in hopes of countering both the high rate of band dispersal and lack of respect for existing leadership among the younger generatioin. In previous years numerous traders had set themselves up as leaders of small factions that broke away from the main band. A Cree chief complained to McDougall that a trader would '[set] up his own chief and the result is we are broken up into little parties, and our best men are no longer respected." (Niemi-Bohun 2009:87 {11}; McDougall 1875 {11}) This was a censure to McDougall. One of these traders was McDoougall's son David. The McDougalls were zealous in promoting Samson and Muddy Bull, Methodists, to the position of chiefs. They proposed Samson - a Cree/Nakoda of no significant background other than by marriage to Head Chief Bobtail's sister - to be Head Chief of the western Cree. The Hudson's Bay Company had been creating 'Chiefs' for decades, including Mistowasis and Sweetgrass (Fromhold 2011 {11}) 1870 CAN/AB (v.3); because of the epidemic larger bands break up and disperse, often forced to leave behind the sick and elderly in order to increase mobility and chance of finding food. Did not re-combine" (Niemi-Bohun 2009:87; Binnema 2001:124-125 {11}) none of the Alberta bands broke up (Fromhold 2011 {11}) 1870's CAN/AB; "When the Canadian government treated with Indians on the Plains, they encountered bands that had not previously existed, remnants of old bands, and people who did not affiliate with any band." Niemi-Bohun 2009:87 {11}) This was normal for the NEHIYAW-PWAT socio-political structure. Cree bands were not monolithic nor of fixed membership, but highly fluid in membership around a leading man. Bands dispersed on the death of the chief, either to other bands, to small new bands, and to a core remant of the old band; these would often later re-combine. The Blackfoot, on the other had, were monolithic, and bands remained constant and continuous; the Buffalo Followers, for example, existed since before 1750 into historic times, led by successive descendants. (Fromhold 2011 {11}) 1870's CAN/AB; "Thus, rather than a strong band identity, Hardisty's observations (Hardisty 1885) reveals that some bands during this transition period were created in response to locality at the time people came into treaty Niemi-Bohun 2009:87-88 {11}) Not at all. These bands were historic entities, and membership in that band existed because those members at that time had had a historic connection and affiliation with that band. (Fromhold 2011 {11}) 1880 CAN/AB, Edmonton; Inspector of Indian Agencies Thomas Wadsworth compiles a list of individuals who do not identify with any local band and catagoried them as 'Stragglers living about Edmonton with no recongized chief' (Treaty Annuity Paulists, Treaties 4, 6, and 7 vol. 9414, RG10, LAC {11}) consolidates the 'stragglers' with various bands in Treaty 6 into the 'Stragglers Living about Edmonton" Niemi-Bohun 2009:91 {11}) "These 'stragglers' "did not identify with an established band band." Niemi-Bohun 2009:91 {11}) Wrong. They identified with a band not then currently at Edmonton at the time of the Annuity payments. (Fromhold 2011 {11] "These women were from various locations throughout the Northwest and travelled extensively throughout the territories with their families." Niemi-Bohun 2009:91 {11}) A normal behavior among the NEHIYAW-PWAT (Fromhold 2011 {11}) "They ranged from young unmarried women with no children to grandmothers with numerous children and grandchildren. While many women on this paylist were related to each other and linked to Cree communities in the region through kinship and marriage, they did not represent a cohesive group that made collective decisions." Niemi-Bohun 2009:91 {11}) By Traditional Law and Custom, they would come under the juresdiction of the local leading Headman or Chief, who would take responsibility to look after their interests; by this time most of the local bands had relocated further south, leaving the Edmonton Stragglers/Home Indians as the largest of the Fort Edmonton Bands, with some 1000+ persons affiliated with the band. Consists of families of persons employed or settled at Edmonton and of families of men away in the south with Kiskiyew or on the buffalo hunt SE towards the Hand Hills; prominent Headmen include: Lapotac, Enoch Chief 1859/91 Lap Lapotac, Thomas Chief 1842/84 Oon>Pas>Lap Piche, Samuel Meminowatow Headm 1840/85 Pes>MaA/Ale>Kis/Mem>Lap Salois, Joseph Abraham II Headm 1823- Du?>LSA/MuS>Kis>FtE>MET (Fromhold 2011 {11}) Wadsworth, Thomas I.A.Insp1860 >ALB/FtE> (Fromhold 2011 {11}) 1916 CAN/AB, Edmonton; Malcom Norris joins NWMP (i.e., Royal North West Mounted Police); soon released as being under age Niemi- Bohun 2009:95n67 {11}) 1839 CAN/SK, Ft. Pitt; Mary Norris born (Niemi-Bohun 2009:95n67 {11}) Her Metis scrip application states d.o.b. as 1840 (Fromhold 2011 {11}) 1891 Aug 9; CAN/AB, Ft. Edmonton; Mary Norris buried in St. Albert Cemetery Niemi-Bohun 2009:95n67 {11}) Niemi-Bohun again goes through some gyrations to explain why Mary was buried at St. Albert and John Sr. and children in the Edmonton cemetery. Postulates that Mary at this time was no longer wife of John - but of course, she had been his legal wife. Again, applying Oxam's Razor, we find that Mary was Catholic and John (and therefore of course the children) were presbyterians (Fromhold 2011 {11}) ====================================================================== GADD, Benjamin 1995 HANDBOOK OF THE CANADIAN ROCKIES; Corax Press, Jasper, Alberta; This book is a massive Tome, a truly herculean effort that might well have been entitled EVERYTHING YOU WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT THE ROCKIES AND THEN SOME. I have to admit, I did not read much more than a sample of this book. though I don't doubt that Gadd MAY know something about what he is talking about, it certainly didn't show in the section of I read. That section, of course, was on the history of the Rocky Mountains, and specifically with interest in what he had on the Native history. Unfortunately, his Native History section is so poor that I simply do not have any confidence in anything else he wrote. Though generally accurate as far as White history is concerned, Gadd apparently does not have anything but the foggiest clue about Native history. Apparently he has not taken the bother to research the issue, and such materials as he has read (or misinformation he has received) is decades out of date. Virtually every statement he has made is wrong, most of it abysmally so. Return to Top of page ====================================================================== BARBEAU, Marius 1960 INDIAN DAYS ON THE WESTERN PRAIRIES; Bulletin 163, National Museum of Canada, Ottawa; Some excellent anecdotal information given by western Nakoda informants, but very careless with dating information. The pictures included generally have no relevance whatsoever with the text or the NW plains, though the Kootenay pictures are useful in that they are not available elsewhere and do have some relevance to the Western Prairies. ====================================================================== RAY, Arthur J. 1974 INDIANS IN THE FUR TRADE; University of Toronto Press; Toronto An excellent study, but his tribal distribution for the far west was obsolete the day it was written. Unfortunately, Ray's work suffers from the same old problem - the lack of knowlege by learned people about the history of the western Cree. Facts and figures about the fur trade by Ray may well be THE authoritative source for such information. However, his account of tribal histories is very sketchy. To be fair, such was the state of the academic knowlege of Canadian Indian history at the time. Sadly, the situation has not changed significantly to date. For example, the History Department of the University of Calgary has canceled it's ONLY Indian History course. The Anthropology Department at the U of C hasn't had a decent course since the early '70's, and there isn't a university in Canada today that offers a decent course that stresses Indian history. And the history taught in the schools is even worse (if they don't bother to teach the teachers, then who can teach the students ?). see also FROMHOLD, Joachim 1981a A Critique of A.J. Ray's "Indians in the Fur Trade"; Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Archaeology; Archaeological Association, University of Calgary; Calgary 1716 Mountain Indians: Ray suggests this refers to the Mandan or Hidatsa, these being the 'Mountain' Indians (Ray 1974:57); note, however, that the Mountain Indians were the group who came the farthest, and were invariably in the Saskatchewan River brigade - hardly indicative of Mandan or Hidatsa (Fromhold) 1717 Ft. Churchill built by HBC; draws the trade of some Northern Sinepoet (Ray 1974:59}) The Sinepoet were probably only visiting to see the new post, as was common for them (Fromhold) 1754 Dec; Red Deer R.; Henday winters in eastern Alberta near the river (Ray 1974:89) Not likely! The geography & ecology of the area do not match that in Henday's journal. Woodlands do not exist east of the Tail Creek area except as scrub poplar stands (even today few date more than 50 years old). The true forest transition does not begin until west of a line from the Little Red Deer River to Pigeon Creek. Mature spruce of over 100 years old are found only on a handful of steep north-facing slopes, and spruce woods are only found once past the forest transition line. See also the discussion of the problem of human geography presented by an interpretation having Henday go down the Red Deer River in the spring (Fromhold) 1755 Mar; Red Deer R; While in eastern Alberta "Henday's band headed to a river, probably a branch of the Red Deer, and began building their canoes..." (Ray 1974:90) Others claim a North Saskatchewan route Again, note the failure of the ecology and geography to cconform to Henday's description. Further, there are no birch trees of any kind within 200 miles, let along birch suitable to make canoes. Further, there are no 'rivers' tributary to the Red Deer down- stream from the Blindman River with enough water to float an empty canoe without trouble even during spring runnoff (and the Blindman is a 'river' only by courtesey in that it occupies an oversized valley that makes it too big to be called a creek). Again, see also the problem of human geography by having Henday on the Red Deer River, which would suggest the Cree and Nakoda were at that time occupants of the entire Red Deer and South Saskatchewan River area (Fromhold) ====================================================================== DEMPSEY, Hugh A. n.d. INDIAN TRIBES OF ALBERTA; u/k; Over the years Hugh has established a well-deserved reputation in the field of Native history and history in general. For the most part, this has been in relation to the Blackfoot history, such as his earlier editing of manuscripts at the Glenbow Museum, and later books such as CROWFOOT and RED CROW. When he ventures beyond the Blackfoot, however, he is on shakier ground (though his book BIG BEAR is generally laudable); for example, his orthography and translations of Cree place names in the booklet INDIAN PLACE NAMES OF ALBERTA is generally poor, and often unintellegible to Cree speakers. INDIANS OF ALBERTA suffers from the same problems; Dempsey's knowlege of Indian peoples of Alberta has room for improvement. Among other things, Dempsey's map in INDIANS OF ALBERTA has several serious flaws: ------------------------------------------------------------------- | 1. The map does not represent accurate tribal distribution for | any given date or time period. | 2. Woodland Cree do not and never have extended into the Caribou | Mountains. The Caribou Mountains were split among thr Dene Tha | in the W & NW, the Slavey in the N, the Chipewyan on the NE | & E, Cree (Little Red River Band) on the SE, and Tza Tinne on | the S & SW. | 3. The woodland Cree do not and never have extended into the | mountains between the Peace R. and Saskatchewan R. These | lands were occupied by mixed bands of Nakoda, Iroquois, | Tza Tinne, Sekani, Soto and at one time the Shuswap & Carriere. | 4. The Dene Tha do not consider themselves as Slavey for the most | part, and prefer not to use that designation. | 5. O'Chiese Band (#10) is a Soto band. Although now mixed with | Cree and generally identified as Cree, the band is not | comfortable with that designation. | 6. Kehewin (#19, aka. Long Lake First Nation) is between Saddle | Lake & Frog Lake reserves. | 7. Cold Lake Reserves (#44) are south of Cold Lake. | 8. Beaver L. Reserve (#32) is at the head of the Beaver River, on | the southeast of Lac La Biche. | 9. Heart Lake Band (#32) is a Chipewyan band, not Cree (although | there is some kinship with the Beaver Lake Cree band). Heart | Lake has the distinction of being the most misidentified band | in Alberta, being consistently identified as Beaver or Cree, | but never as Chipewyan - including in Indian Affairs booklets. | 10. # 38 is Beaver Ranche Reserve; it is technically part of | Tallcree Band, but has seperate origins and is not a happy | member of the band. | 11. Tallcree Reserves (#38 & 39) consist of 2 reserves 50 km. | apart, both being south of the Peace River, the nearest being | 50 km. south of the river. (# 38 is actully Beaver Ranche | Reserve) | 12. Beaver First Nation (# 37) consists of 2 reserves, Boyer | River and Child's Lake, 15 km. apart and having origins in | 2 seperate bands. | 13. Little Red River (#37) is north of the Peace River. Also | belonging to Little Red River Band are Fox Lake Reserve (not | shown) to the east and south of the river, and Garden River | Settlement (not shown) to the east of Fox Lake and north of | the river, in Wood Buffalo National Park | 14. Fort Chipewyan Cree Band (#35, 36) has a reserve at Peace | Point (not shown) north of the Peace River near the northern- | most point of the river, in Wood Buffalo National Park. | 15. Bushe River Reserve (#48) is located due west of #45 on the | outskirts of High Level. It is located in traditional lands | of the Beaver First Nation | 16. Several reserves are located around Hay Lake (#49). The | main and only occupied reserve is SE of Hay Lake. | 17. There is no reserve at #51. Presumably this refers to the | Bistcho Lake reserve to the west, 1/2 way to the B.C. border. | It has been unoccupied until recently and currently has 1-2 | families in part-time residence. | 18. Duncan's and Sturgeon Lake Reserves (#22 & 23) are mixed | Tza Tinne and Cree bands, generally considered as Cree. |___________________________________________________________________| 1880 c. Sharphead's band takes a reserve at Pigeon Lake (Dempsey n.d.:46 {P}) Sharphead's band takes a reserve at Battle River Crossing (Ponoka); Muddy Bull takes a reserve at Pigeon Lake Return to Top of page ====================================================================== CORTESI, Lawrence 1971 JIM BECKWOURTH: Exporer-Patriot of the Rockies; Criterion Books, New York; Firstly, I am not qualified to really address most of this book. My knowlege is essentially Western Canadian Aboriginal and Fur Trade history. This, of course, overlaps to some degree into adjacent areas, such as the Indian and fur trade history of the Missouri and portions of the Central Plains and Plateau. It is in this area that there are certain problems in correlating the history of Beckwourth while with the Crow, as given in this book with documented history of the area. One gets the impression that much of this is historical fiction, though there may well be valid reasons. pg. 95; 1828; Pine Leaf is called a Squaw (This is a loaded racist term. She is a woman. Furthermore, "Squaw" is an Algonkian word, derived from the Cree-Chippewa group; the proper Crow word would be "Wiyan"). pg. 96; 1828; "Many Crow speak the white man's tongue...Missionaries from the lodges at Fort Union have taught us." (The first Missionary at Fort Union was Fr. De Smet in 1841.) pg. 98; 1828; "Pine Leaf was a princess..." (Romantic transposition of European lore. There was no such thing as a 'Princess' [or Kings or Princes] among the Plains Indians. The term is usually used by people ignorant of Indian socio-political structure.) pg. 106; 1828; "Within two minutes, thirteen Blackfoot were dead, six of them from Jim's accurate rifle shots." (A truly incredible feat, considering that the rifles at the time were musket-loading flintlocks.) pg. 110; 1828; "Fort Union was a small military outpost aoubt twenty miles southwest of Absarokee. The Fort, just beyond Crow country...." (The first post built at or near the site was built by James Kipp in 1829; it was named Fort Union two years later. It was located at the mouth of the Yellowstone; Crow country was to the Southwest. The Crow did not have a permanent village. Abasarokee was the name for the tribe and the tribal territory.) pg. 111; 1828; Ft. Union staffed by "Pony Soldiers" under Col. Paul McKenzie and has a "parade green". (Ft. Union was not yet built, and was little more than a couple of shacks at this time. "Pony Soliers" were still 20 years away & Ft. Union was not staffed by the army until the 1850's, when they established Fort Peck.) pg. 111; 1828; "Owl Bear, second Chief of Absarokee." (No record of such. Second Chief of the Crow was Rotten Belly. There is some question actually if Long Hair or Rotten Belly were the main chief at the time; the whites recognized Long Hair because he had been willing to sign a treaty.) pg. 115; 1828; Fort Union can't raise more than a dozen axes and a dozen knives for trade, but have two plows they can give to the Crow. (In 1835 the real Ft. Union GAVE AWAY 12 doz. knives to ONE band of Cree. There were no plows within a thousand miles at this time (at Red River, Manitoba) pg. 116; 1828-34 Crow Indians build permanent, year-round lodges, plant gardens, corn, wheat. (Say what ?) pg. 117; 1832 by; "...the Crow routed the Blackfoot tribes....Other Indians soon came to fear the Crow..." (The Blackfoot were never routed by the Crow. The Blackfoot at this time were taking over Montana from the Yellowstone west and into Wyoming. Though the Crow were highly respected as warriors, the tribe was neaver feared by anyone. The Flathead were always a peaceful people, and had been friends and allies of the Crow for over 30 years - the Crow got their horses from the Flathead. The Crow population was steadily on the decline throughout known history.) pg. 119; 1834; "The renegade Chief Red Bird..." (Was Red Bird a Crow, to be called a renegade ? Thre was no Chief Red Bird known among the Blackfoot at this time, though there may well have been [not all Chiefs are known for this time], or the Crow name for a Blackfoot Chief) pg. 119; 1834; "...the Blackfoot are still masters of the high plains." (The Blackfoot were never on the High Plains, they were on the Northwest Plains). pg. 120; 1834; "...Red Bird was making a last-gap effort..." ( Presumably Red Bird is supposed to be the Head Chief of the Blackfoot - who never had a Head Chief. At best, Head Chief of the Piegan [i.e., Chief of the Inuksa Aiyiks Band]. As for last gasp? dream on or learn some aboriginal histoyr.) pg. 120; 1834; "The Crow could amass 5,000 rifle toting braves." (Dreamer. The Crow could never muster more than 1,000 braves. At best, 1/2 were areme with guns - but not in 1834). pg. 124; 1834; "...from surrounding villages were arriving at the huge village of Absarokee" (again the implication of a rural population of permanent villages). pg. 126; 1834; Long Hair retires as Head Chief & Beckwourth made Head Chief. (Long Hair never retired. Most northern Plains tribes had no ceremonial investiture of any chiefs. Chiefs became chiefs by gaining followers, not by investiture.) pg. 129; 1834; "totoem pole"; {Totems did not exist on the Northern Plains, much less Totem Poles of any kind.) pg. 132; 1834; The Assiniboine "sold some land to sod buster farmers and now they're driving these settlers off..." (There were no sodbuster farmers at this time - at most some Metis squatters [which the US. Army generally detested]. The Assiniboine did not sell any land to settlers at this time. The Assiniboine were the friendliest tribe of any towards whites, except for the Cree, and few people could tell where the Cree stopped and the Assiniboine began, due to their intermarriage.) pg. 134 states the "sodbusters" lived in sod houses. (Metis and Indians did not build sod houses, and the nearest other sodbusters were still in St. Louis, excepting some indentured tenants at Red River.) pg. 132; 1834; "They threaten to go to war if any white pony soldiers ser foot on their lands...They claim this would be a violation of our treaty with them" (There were no Pony Soldiers in the within 1000 miles [see above]. The first Treaty made with the Assiniboine by the U.S. was in 1851). pg. 132; 1834; "White Creek settlements" (The Assiniboine did not have settlements or permanent village. White Creek/White Earth was a seasonal camping area, mainly by the Xa Tonwan Yabine, Wiche Yabine & Wato Pabine bands). pg. 132; 1834; "Red Bear" the chief at White Creek. (No such name recorded for chiefs of the bands noted above. As the Crow and Assiniboine spoke the same language, they would have used the same names (MATO SA or O SINCHA SA). Chat Ka was the reginal Head Chief. There was a Crow chief named Red Bear at this time.) pg. 135; 1834; "...Crow...had brought humiliation and defeat to the Blackfoot, brothers of the Assiniboine." (The Blackfoot and Assiniboine were implacable enemies; had been and would be for for over 50 years. They were not related in any way. Blackfoot are Algonkian peoples and Assiniboine Siouan peoples; they do not speak a common language and have no common ancestry, other than in distant prehistoric times. However, both Assinibon and Crow are Siouan people and speak virtually the same language and have a common ancestry.) pg. 138; 1834; "lands east of the Mississippi were getting crowded" (Not for another 2 decades). pg. 139; "Oregon-bound" wagon trains; (Undated. Certainly not in the 1830's). pg. 140; McKenzie still Col. at Ft. Union; (That's a hell of a long time for an officer to be posted to one post and not yet have been promoted. Fort Union was an American Fur Trade Post, in charge of (1) James Kipp, (2) Kenneth McKenzie (3) Alexander Culbertson, (4) Edwin Denig. Culbertson was in chagre in the 1840's; his wife was Blackfoot.) pg. 140; "...our treaty with the whites..." (The Crow did not sign a treaty until 1851 (and that was a sham, the Government taking the signature of Big Robber, chief of a marginal and renegade Crow band and declaring Big Robber Head Chief of the Crow and the treaty binding on all Crow.) pg. 141; 1841; Joe Kipp one of Ashley's men in 1819. (Joe Kipp, son of James Kipp, was not born yet at the time.) pg. 146; 1841 "the holstered gun at his side" (Holsters did not come intu use until the advent of the revolver in 1852) pg. 148; 1841; "You walloped ever' other tribe..." (Dream on) pg. 207; 1866; "greedy landseekers..." massacred Black Kettle's Sioux. (Battle of the Washita; by Col. George Armstrong Custer and the 7th Cavalry; The "greedy landseekers" were appalled, and almost managed to get Custer court martialed). ====================================================================== HAMILTON, Jacques 1977 OUR ALBERTA HERITAGE; Calgary Power Ltd., Calgary This is what passes for pupular history in the west. It is about what schools teach, if they teach any western history at all, and is about what the average westerner knows about western history, if he/she knows any at all. Again, I am being unfair, since I did not read sections that were not on the early or Indian history. Those sections, however, were so full of holes it is similar to parachuting with a fishnet. p5 "The first traders [in Northern Alberta] were the Hudson's Bay Company. In time the competition of the Nor'westers..." (The first French Traders arrived on the Saskatchewan River before 1690, the HBCo in 1690. The French stayed, the HBCo did not return until 1754. The first Canadian traders arrived in Alberta in 1778, in Northern Alberta. The HBCo arrived in 1792 and, in the north, in 1815; Fromhold) Crowfoot "even led efforts to negotiate peace with the Blackfoot's traditional and hated enemy, the Cree." (The usual stereotype that there was som sort of all-out war between Blackfoot and Cree. History shows that such was not the case; Fromhold) p7 Traders had the Indians replace deadfall traps with steel traps (Metal traps never caught on with the Indians (see Ray 1974); Fromhold) When moose & beaver in an area were exhausted the traders simply moved on (Hamilton 1977:7); "And as areas were hunted out, tribes needed to expand into new hunting territory....Expansion was literally a matter of life and death...and the fighting bloody and the truces uneasy and short-lived." (Hamilton 1977:8) Don't know these guys get their ideas from - certainly not from a study of history. There is a myth that the Indians exhausted their lands; all records show that they were strongly against such practice, and hated the free trappers for doing exactly that. They did not exhaust their lands; if they had, and moved on, places like Fort Vermilion, Ft. Chipewyan, Dunvegan, Grouard, Ft. St. John, etc., could not have survived continuously for 200 years; All indications are that tribal territories in the north have not changed much since prehistoric times; the Cree, Chipewyan and Beaver have been at peace since 1781; Various of the bands along the border are of mixed ethnic backgrounds and some, over time, have changed their ethnic identity. To purchase a rifle cost a stack of beaver pelts as high as the rifle (what B.S; The North-West Gun tended to remain at around 10-14 MB/5-10 Buffalo Robes, depending on the gun; Fromhold) Indians often steal furs out of the post at night and re-sell them the following day, sometimes several times (Hamilton 1977:8) (What B.S., no such account in the journals; Journals usually state that stock and pelts were left unguarded for weeks on end until the traders could return to pick them up; Fromhold) "The Kootenays and their allies, the Flatheads, the Coeur-d'Alenes and the Shuswaps, entertained the most violent hatred against the white men..." (Hamilton 1977:98); Actually, these tribes were the friendliest of tribes and never made the slightest trouble for the white men, even when allied tribes rose in resistance to being swamped by the U.S. immigrants and being disposessed of their lands in the 1850's. In fact, they took the side of the white men. "Frontiers were not an idle question for the contenders....They meant safety within the borders where the hunters could scatter at random....Parties of hunters from various tribes would clash over conflicting claims. No redress could be found but in violence....The toll of lives grew heavy over the years" (Hamilton 1977:96); Not one single battle was ever fought over boundary or border disputes. Exclusive territory and fixed borders/frontiers simply was not a concept held by the Indians. The Asini Wachi Wininiwak, who encroached furthest on Blackfoot lands had less than 10 battles with the Blackfoot in 300 years; Fromhold) p14 "...the traders were uneasy about the violent record of these [Tza Tinne] Indians of the Athabasca." (They exhibited violence only on one occasion against traders - Samuel Black in particular - and then it was a personal vendeta initiated by Black's appropriation of another man's wife. It appears that if the Indians commit 2 incidents in 100 years it indicates a burning hatred, whereas a continuous policy Ethnic Cleansing and efforts to deny or destroy tribal culture by whites means only that the white men had only the best interests of the Indians at heart by "Civilizing" them ?; Fromhold) p7 1778-1821 HBCo & NWCo occasionally burn down each other's posts (No such record; Fromhold) p43 1801 by; "the forests east of the Rockies were virtually trapped out and the companies were operating deep into the mountain interior (Far from it. The forests of the mountains had been barely scratched. Nowhere had the montane forests yet been touched except in the immediate vicinity of Rocky Mountain House (est. 3 years earlier). The forests west of Edmonton were virtually unoccupied north to the Peace River and Lesser Slave Lake. North of the Peace/Blueberry River was virtually untouched, and the Finlay River unknown for another 24 years. p46 1805 Hudson Hope; Simon Fraser prepares to push on up the Peace River (1806; Fromhold) p55 1810 David Thompson knew "that many river had been followed from the Pacific far up into the mountains." (Only the Columbia had been followed "far up into the mountains", and that mostly by Thompson. No other rivers had; Fromhold) p55 1810 David Thompson knew nothing of the Peace River route across the mountains (He surveyed the river to the Peace River Canyon in 1803; Fromhold) p55-56 1810 "It was the link with [the Columbia] that Thompson was determined to find....Thompson knew he had no reason to be optimistic of finding it. Three times before - in 1800, 1801 and 1806 - he had set off on the same search, and three times he had failed." (1807 not 1806; He went to the Columbia in 1807; by 1810 he was fully familliar with the Columbia, and had himself followed it almost to the coast; Fromhold) p57 1810 David Thompson finally discovers an easy route across the mountains to the Pacific (Obviously Hamilton is unfamilliar with this subject. The Athabasca Pass route is one of the worst; Fromhold) p58 1810/11 "Most of his [David Thompson's] men were voyageurs, used to canoes and rivers. They were superstitious, and frankly terrified by the strangeness and loneliness of the mountains." (For the past 6 years or more most had been stationed at Rocky Mountain House of in the Columbia basin with Thompson, yearly crossing the Great Divide by way of Howse Pass at least twice. Ignace and Toma had lived, huted, and trapped in this same area for some 10 years; Fromhold) p57 1811 "The River was the Kootenae, and soon it and a network of small waterways were leading the party westward...the Columbia River." (Better check your map a bit more closely; Fromhold) p99 1812 Flathead torture a Blackfoot (This is an aprocryphal story, like an Urban Legend. The same story is given almost word for word for each of the Northwest Plains tribes. On one occasion, it is given of the Blackfoot, on another of Big Bear's Cree band, etc. It is likely a myth. Torture, burning at the stake, etc. was not practiced on the Northern Plains (most Cree and Nakoda were Indian in name only, half-white Metis in fact, and frontier semi -sedentary farmers); Scalping was rare, even among the Blackfoot) p62-63 1813 post; "Hudson's Bay men poured into the Rockies. Everywhere the Nor'wester turned, they found Bay men opposing them....Bay men and Nor'westers wrestled...over control of the mountain trade" (The HBCo never built a post west of the mountains until after the amalgamation. The ONLY HBCo party to cross the mountains was Joseph Howse in '09; Fromhold) p63 1821 The struggle between the HBCo and NWCo ended "with the absorption of the North West Company....The surrender of the Nor'westers." (It was an amalgamation. The HBCo name and supply system was retained, the HBCo post abandoned in favour of the NWCo posts, the NWCo officers all made Partners of the New Co (but not so all HBCo officers), the French voyageurs laid off and the Scots boatmen retained. It was the NWCo with a new supply system and a new name; Fromhold) p63-66 1821 post; After the amalgamation of the HBCo and NWCo "violence...still lingered in the mountains". Such cases as the killing of Samuel Black "were common..." (There were exactly 2 such incidences and both involved Black, neither were due to inter-company competition, and hostility was not general; Fromhold) "The truth is that for many years of the period during which the west was being settled, the Indians of the mountains hated the white men and would kill anytime they could get away with it." (Heap Big B.S; The Indians of the mountains NEVER hated the white man and (excepting 1 vendetta) were always friendly. No Canadian was ever killed by by Indians of the mountains. Most of the Mountain Indians were, in fact, half-white Metis; Fromhold)) 1823 HBCo decides to close Ft. St. John and relocated the post "to the Rocky Mountain Portage, for the convenience of the Tsekanies, who were excellent hunters, but who could not be well supplied from this post, on account of the distance. "Unfortunately a quarrel had arisen about this time between the Indians of Fort St. John's and the Tsekanies. The former viewed the removal of the post from their lands as an insult, and a measure that gave their enemies a decided superiority over them, and they took a very effectual method of disappointing them." (Fort St. John's was in fact the territory of several Sekani bands; the trouble-makers were a Tza Tinne family of newcomers to the area. All posts on the upper Peace were then closed, including Rocky Mountain Portage; Fromhold) p17 1823 Ft. Chipewyan "William McGillivray, was recruited to lead a punitive expedition" (McGillivray was not at Ft. Chip. until '26; Fromhold) p18 1825-28 Peace River; HBCo closes all it's posts (1824-28; Fromhold) p17 1825-28 "....many starved when the traders closed their posts ....there simply wasn't enough game left to keep the Indians alive." (What crap. There was no starvation; there was no decline in population. The area was not devoid of game or fur. In later times it supported 10x the population. Where's the evidence ?; Fromhold) p17-18 1828 Peace River; "The traders re-opened the posts" (Why, if the area was destitute of fur and game ?; Fromhold) p 11 1840 Jasper; Snake Indians annihalated (There is much dispute over the year; probably 1836. They were not annihalated; they were of mixed origin, but generally linked with the Shuswap. ; Fromhold) p66 1841 Simpson Pass discovered by Sir George Simpson (It had long been known. He was led across it by his Metis and French guides. ; Fromhold) "Simpson would march into a camp of hostile Indians and immediately humble them - or browbeat them - into an agreement of peace." (Doubt Simpson ever walked into an Indian camp, let alone a hostile one. Certainly never involved in making a peace; Fromhold) p14 1855 c; Lacombe builds the first bridge west of Red River; (No. First bridge already existed c.1810 at Rocky Mountain House. More were built later; Fromhold) p5 1860 pre; "the main ways to move goods across the plains were still the canoe, dog-team, and pack-horse" but now came the bull trains, followed by fast mule-teams (Main way by this time was by Red River Cart; canoes were not used on the plains; Fromhold) p8 1863 Montana; "Kootenai" Brown kills a man in a gambling quarrel (In '77; Fromhold) p20 1863 George McDougall brings his wife...John...& John's wife Abigaile (John did not marry Abigaile until '65; Fromhold) p8 1864 "Kootenai" Brown goes to the Cariboo goldrush (To the Wild Horse goldfield; Fromhold) p15 1865 Blackfoot "fierceness and hatred of the whites - including missionaries - was legendary" (Blackfoot 'fierceness and hatred' are a Plains Indian Sterotype Myth. Records from Canadian journals invariable show them as curteous, friendly, generally well behaved, restrained, peaceable, and friendly to missionaries. But not to Americans; Fromhold) p15 1865 Blackfoot object to the Christian requirement "that demanded the unthinkable sacrifice of abandoning the harem" (Blackfoot did not have harems; Fromhold) p16 1865 "Most of the Blackfoot warriors were away hunting for game, and it was a pitifully small force that was left to withstand the large force of Cree and Assiniboine bent on slaughtering the camp." (Plains Indians did not stay away overnight hunting unless the wife was along as a rule; Fromhold) p15 1865 "Blackfoot leaders had led their people north-ward - dangerously close to the dividing line between their territory and that of the Cree." (There were no such 'dividing lines. Rigid boundaries are the product of modern nation-states. Indian territories overlapped and fluctuated by season; Fromhold) p76 1860's "The laws of the Young Dominion of Canada always did apply to the territory that was to become Alberta" (Canada had no juresdiction west of Canada West (Ontario) and some undefined border east Kaministiquia until after 1869; Fromhold) p78 "Antoine Primeau a white man (Actually a Metis; Fromhold) p3 1869 Whoop-Up Trail is the first trail in Alberta (Far from it. The oldest known is the North Trail, followed by the Colville Trail. Archaeological indications (see Fromhold 1971) are that there were already well-defined trailsin prehistoric times; Fromhold) p11-15 1870's Red Lake (MN); Kootenai Brown hunts & traps (biography says he settled in Waterton in '73; Fromhold) p40 1870 Peace River; C.F. Butler visits area (Actually W.F. Butler, '73; Fromhold) p21 1871 "Victoria mission is abandoned by the McDougalls" (McDougall is transfered and replaced; Fromhold) p70 1871 Fort Saskatchewan; "the Canadian government gave in and opened Alberta's first post office." in response to settler's demands (No settlers; no demands; no Fort Saskatchewan, no authority before the previous year; Fromhold) p6 1873 John McDougall "cut out the northern half" of the Calgary- Edmonton Trail "to create a cart route between Fort Edmonton and his mission at Morley" (no cutting needed; it had been used by carts since at least 1830; by 1858 it was a "well marked road" from use by carts; Fromhold) p9 1873 "we laid him out at Freezeout...." (Freeport; Fromhold) p24-29 1874 Jan 2; "George McDougall killed in blizzard. (Actually in '76; Fromhold) p77 Jerry Potts; "Fed up with the excesses of the traders and sick of the depradations visited upon the Indians, he had gone south and taken a job for the respectable I.G.Baker and Company." (I.G. Baker & Co. were the biggest suppliers of whiskey posts and whiskey in the northwest and owned several of the posts; Fromhold) p89 1875 c. Crowfoot the "undisputed leader of the finest Indian tribe in the west, and spokesman for the strongest alliance in the Indian nation." (Crowfoot was not "undisputed leader" of the Siksika, let alone of the Blackfoot as a whole. The Nehiyapwat Confederacy was more poerfull than the Blackfoot Confederacy at this time. There were more than one "Indian nation"; Fromhold) p8 1875 c. At the same time that the Calgary-Edmonton trail was being built a route west was also being "carved out" to Alberta (had been carved out over 50 years earlier; Fromhold) p87 1876 Fall; "Within weeks" of the Battle of Little Big Horn... the entire Sioux nation - nearly 6,000 strong - was fleeing north across the Canadian border...and camped around Fort Walsh" (Actually not until Mar '77. & camped 100 miles east of Ft. Walsh; Sioux nation number more than 6,000; Fromhold) p108-109 1877 pre; Lasting peace made between Cree & Blackfoot at Pipestone Creek. (A casual smoke in a clay pipe would not bring perpetual peace. The Blackfoot and Cree made peace at least once a year. The date given was pre 1877, ergo at the latest 1871, as lasting peace was made that year between the Asini Wachi Wininiwak and Siksika, between the West People and the Blackfoot a few years later. No chiefs by those names are recorded at this time among the Siksika/Blackfoot or West Pepole Nehiyapwat or thereafter; Fromhold) p109 1877 pre; Red Deer River seperates Cree and Blackfoot territory (Never has. Borders were not an Indian concept and are the product of a city-state mentality; Fromhold) p15 1877 "Kootenai" Brown teams up with Fred Kanouse "and the two opened a store...at Waterton....despite the attraction of huge profits, avoided trading in whiskey...they had both seen (in 1873; They were both notorious whiskey traders; Fromhold) p92 1879-84 Dominion Telegraph poles used as rubbing posts for buffalo, and often worn completely off or knocked down (There were no more buffalo along the route by this time; Fromhold) p88 1881 "Walsh...negotiated the agreement that returned Sitting Bull and his people" (Crozier; Walsh had been transfered because he was too friendly with Sitting Bull; Fromhold) p105 "The Pheasant had run amuck in his tribe's camp, threatening to kill and eat anyone who crossed his path....The Pheasant was possessed of a cannibal spirit known as the Witigo which prompted him to eat his own kind." (This is an exceptionally twisted and sensationalized account of the killing of Moostoos (here called The Pheasant), as customary among the Cree, of persons who became posessed of the WITIKO spirit; Fromhold) p31-32 1903 Apr 29; Crowsnest Mountain; 4 A.M. Frank Slide (Turtle Mountain, not Crowsnest Mountain; Fromhold) ====================================================================== GARNEAU, Richard 2002 METIS CULTURE HISTORY; article on Internet A Metis history from a personal/family perspective. Huge amounts of raw data. Overall one of the best sites of it's kind and one of the best sources of RAW data. Sometimes colored by personal personal ideology (and so what isn't ?). Unfortunately the many errors in significant details (I won't even go into the many many many errors in names, spelling, typos, etc; and consistent mis-spellings of some terms, e.g., use of 'popular' for poplar, 'Trail Creek' for Tail Creek, 'Cyprus Hills' for Cypress Hills) cast doubt on the accuracy of all the information. Very fast and loose with dates and careless with events and details; Dates VERY unreliable. Comments colored by strong personal prejudices; is totally negative about non-French non- Metis non-Indian achievements. Sloppy writing techniques and non- sequitors often leave dates difficult or impossible to clearly sort out. In referring to women's data, often uses only either married name or birth name without clarification. A consistent use of the term 'squaw' for an Indian woman is disturbing, as the term has strong stereotypical derogatory, racist and sexual overtones; the appropriate terms would be either ISKWEW, the Cree term for Woman from with the term 'squaw' originates, Native (or Indian) Woman, or simply woman. Jean Gauthier (b1669) aka. Saguingoira Joseph Gautier (b1672) aka. Saguingoira 1515 "Francisco Pizarro a Spanish explorer and conqueror of Peru, noted for his audacity, courage, cruelty, and unscrupulousness and for his abilities as a military and civil leader. (in 1531; Fromhold) 1681 Nov 13: "M. Du Chesneau..." (Letter dated Nov 16; Fromhold) 1690 "The Hudson Bay Company built York Factory and Fort Severn. Fort York is defended by a 36 gun man of war so Commander Pierre Le Moyne d' Iberville et d'Ardillieres (1661-1706) of the Bay of the North (Hudson Bay) captured Fort Severn and its rich store of pelts." (York & Severn built in '70; York captured in '94; Fromhold) 1690 York Factory: "The Governor of the Hudson Bay sent Henry Kelsey and Thomas Savage to Churchill River to build a trading post. While Thomas Savage was building the fort, Henry Kelsey and an Indian companion went out to publicize the post among the Indians. They penetrated the back country some 140 miles." (Kelsey sent north in '88; Churchill built in '89; Fromhold) "(I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724) at age 23 in August of 1690 deserted the Hudson Bay Company because he could not stand the Companies indifference towards the interior of the country. He likely believed the Hudson Bay Company is doomed due to its poor performance. He took a Native wife and the English assumed him to be the first Englishman to see the broad Canadian prairies. He reported an abundance of wildlife, huge species of bear and buffalo, on desert and barren ground, a wrong perception that would prevail in the English mind for a hundred and fifty years. (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724) traveled with the Stone, the Naywatamee (probably the Atsina, often referred to as the Fall or Gros Ventre) both members of the Blackfoot confederation. He traveled The Pas, across the Saskatchewan and Red Rivers and possibly as far as Touchwood Hills. Some contend he made it to central Alberta and built a log cabin on the Red Deer River however his guide Alphonse Bouch (through Henry Stelfox and Bessie Swan) claims the (I)-Henry Kelsey (1667-1724) party did not reach central Alberta. It is likely that Red Deer River, Saskatchewan is being confused with Red Deer River, Alberta in the story telling. He would return to the H.B.C. by about 1692. (Apparently based in part on the discredited and unreliable Robson version - written before Kelsey's papers were found. Stone Indians (Nakoda) and Naywatamee (Atsina) were neither members of a Blackfoot Confederacy at that time; did not travel with the Naywatamee; Never got near the Red River; Red Deer River was the old name for the South Saskatchewan R; Fromhold) 1714 "William Stewart of the Hudson Bay Company alleged he walked from the mouth of the Churchill River to Slave Lake and reported seventeen rivers reaching the continental coast beyond the Churchill River. He alleged to have contacted the Chipewyan and assessed the enormous potential of the Athabasca trade. Meanwhile the Canadians are traveling four thousand three hundred miles to trade in the Hudson Bay Company back yard." (in 1715; Fromhold) 1715 "This year he sent William Stuart with a band of Cree and a Chipewyan slave woman to survey the interior but did not supply him with surveying instruments. He spent almost a year in the interior but his accounts are confused and questionable. Some feel he may have reached as far as Great Slave Lake. They are believed to have encountered the Beaver, Slave, Dogrib and Yellowstone people." (No such thing as "Yellowstone" Indians; Fromhold) 1719 "Bernard de la Harpe a Frenchman explored Louisians, Texas to the Red River of the North. He kidnapped Atakapa People bringing them to New Orleans." (Red River, Texas; Fromhold) 1731 Christophee DuFrost de La Jemerais (Jemeraye) (La Verendrye's nephew), and the oldest son of Verendaye, Jean Baptiste de la Verendrye established Fort Saint Pierre at west end of Rainy Lake (International Falls) (Garneau 2002); Fort St. Pierre (Fort Francois) established or upgraded by The Indies Company (La Verendrye Company)(Not Ft. Francois; Fromhold) Sept; "The Hudson Bay Company reported that 12 Canadians...are again on the shores of Lake Winnipeg (aka Bourbon) at the source of the Hayes and Nelson Rivers. These traders are not from the Company of La Verendrye." (LaVerendrey calls Cedar Lake Lac Bourbon, as does Henry; Neither are the source of the Hayes River. Fromhold) 1733 "Fort Maurepas later called Bas de La Riviere and Fort Alexander or Winnipeg Lake Fort is established near the mouth of the Winnipeg River (Onessipi or Maurepas River)." 1733/34 Winnipeg R; Fort Maurepas (Bas De La Riviere, Fort Alexandere) near the mouth of the Red River, established by The Indies Company (La Verendrye Company)(Ft. Maurepas built at mouth of Winnipeg R; First known trading post in Manitoba beyond Hudson Bay; not known as Bas de la Riviere or Fort Alexandere, which were later HBC & NWC posts; Fromhold) 1734-37 Ft. Maurepas/Rouge (Garneau apparently confuses Ft. Maurepas with Ft. Rouge; Fromhold) 1734 "Jean Baptiste Gaultier...built and commands Fort Maurepas, six miles north of Selkirk, Manitoba on the Red River of the North until 1735." aka. "Bas De La Riviere, Fort Alexandere" built "near the mouth of the Red River""South Lake Winnipeg (Garneau 2002) not called Bas De La Riviere or Fort Alexandere; built at the mouth of the Winnipeg River 1737 "The Mandan people at this time lived in fortified cities and raised crops, goats and horses. La Verendrye said the Mandan didn't have horses but their neighbors to the south did." (Cities is a bit of misnomer for settlements of a some 30 houses. Fromhold) 1739 May 8: "Monsieur Charle de Beauharnois de la Boische (1671-1749) Governor New France issued permit to (III)-Louis Charly of Saint Ange to depart Montreal at the melting of next spring for one canoe crew of six men who serve a commission and explore in the name of (III)-Nicolas Brazeau (1706-1755) of Montreal, to render to the Post of Temiscamingue (Ontario). Prohibited to make treaty elsewhere than the named Post and its dependencies. The roles since engaging of the canoe of (III)-Louis Charly of Saint Ange born 1703; (III)-Nicholas Brazeau (1706-1755), guide, of Montreal; (IV)-Louis Francois Sincire alias Saint Cyr (also Rouillard born 1735), of Batiscan (north east of Trois Rivieres); (III)-Oliver Garaheau also called Coline, of Carillon (west of Montreal) alias Garneau, (aka Garao, Garau, Gavahau, Ganahau, Garahan, Gaspe and (Perrin) born 1706 at Bout de I'IIe, Montreal); Louis Latulippe, de Batiscan; Paul Caly, de Saint Leonard; Philippe Savage DuLac (savage of the Lake). Monsieur Colin (possible relative (III)-Oliver Garneau alias Coline), interpreter, burnt with LaBossiere by the Iroquois in 1690." (St. Cyr aged 4? Fromhold) 1740 Pierre Gauthier loses his commission for trade and exploration (not until late '49; Fromhold) 1742 "...La Verendrye...departed the west for trade goods but resigned and died December 5, 1749." (Garneau 2002) should be in '49 1746 "Joseph La France estimated the Indians traded 130,000 beaver and 9,000 marten to York Factory." (in 1741; Fromhold) 1750 "Jean Baptiste Rene LeGardeur...de Repentigny is charged with a commission about the discovery of the Sea of L'Quest." "Jacques LeGardeur of Saint Pierre is commissioned to find the Western Sea" "Red River Settlement about this time is rapidly becoming the hub of the North West Territories fur trade and would begin the transition to become a primary pemmican supplier. To this point wild rice, corn and maple syrup is the staple crops being cultivated. Pemmican being an ideal food supply would discourage most cultivation in the North West Territories." (cultivation & "rapidly becoming" is unsuported speculation. First corn supplied by Shagwawkoosink in 1805; Fromhold) "Archeological evidence suggests the Algonquian people likely the Ojibwa attended the Mandan trade fairs on the Missouri River." (generally said to have been the Cree; Fromhold) "Dobbs and Joseph Robson had published a virulent attack on the Hudson Bay Company of his experiences in the Company employ, an account of six years residence in Hudson Bay. The accusation was that The Company have for eighty years slept at the edge of a frozen sea. It is universally believed among the servants, that the French travel many hundreds of miles over land from Canada to the heads of our rivers in the Bay, and that they have erected huts and settled a considerable factory upon a lake at the head of Nelson River. They trade for the lightest and most valuable furs. " (Dobbs' published in '49, Robson in '52; Fromhold) HBCo policy of not permitting men to bring their families back to England - "It is noteworthy that the same restrictions were not imposed on the French trading Companies but only John Dugald Cameron and James Hughes were prepared to face the impertinent insults and unmerited obloquy of the English. These two traders must be from closer to 1800 as Scots were not working the French companies it this time ?"(Cameron post 1804, Hughes post 1816; Fromhold) 1751 May 29: "The Chevalier Jacques Repentigny LeGardeur of Saint- Pierre...originally commander of Fort Michilimackinac dispatched a party on ten men in two canoes...to build a trading post near the forks of the Saskatchewan that they called Fort La Jonquiere (Nipawin, Saskatchewan)....Some contend this fort is built near Calgary, Alberta and abandoned in 1759. This story suggests a party of ten Frenchmen is dispatched by Boucher de Nioerville (Niverville), Lieutenant under command of...LeGardeur...to established Post La Jonquiere on the Saskatchewan River near the mountains. Bishop Emile Tardiff in his writings supports the story that De Niverville built Fort La Jonquiere was built at or near Calgary...." (Certainly not Nipawin & the Calgary theory is no longer held. See Rocky Mountain House archaeology; Fromhold) 1754 Jun 24: York Factory; Anthony "Henley" departed. (On the 26th. ; Fromhold) "September and October: (I)- Anthony Henday...traveled south of Red Deer River to the Earchithinue tribe, visited the horsed Atsina of the prairies and south to the Bow River." (Generally not accepted that he traveled south of the Red Deer River, and met the Blackfoot, not the Atsina; Fromhold) 1755 "Pierre Gauultier LaVerendrye and 2nd marriage 1755 Louis Joseph Gaultier, sieur La Verendrye." (????) 1755 Henday "Upon his return he was sent out on another year venture but returned in a week which further supports his incompetence." (Garneau 2002)(Henday returned because the man sent with him, William Grover, played out two days out on the journey and had to be taken back; Henday seems to have returned west with the Indians; Fromhold) 1758 "The Assinipoval Metis are establishing farms on the Saskatchewan River System they had previously established themselves on the Red River system." (source ?) 1760 "The dress and other exterior appearances of the Christinaux are very distinguishable from those of the Chippeways (Ojibwa) and the Wood Indians." (Ethnologists disagree; Fromhold) "William Sinclair (1760-1818)...1784 Scotland; William Sinclair born (A biographer states 1766; Fromhold) 1761 Sept 4: Mackinac; "baptism Charles Boyer September 2 son Sieur Michel Boyer, trader at Mackinac and...Josephe Marguerite DuLignon. Sept 14: "Makinac, birth Charles Boyer, son Michel Boyer and...Josette Marguerite Dulignon. 1762 Anthony Henday retired (In '63; Fromhold) 1765 "Thomas Bunn b-1765 England" (born in Hedon '80c; Fromhold) "Michel Cadotte (1764-1837) also conducted a party for his own" (At one year old ?; Fromhold) "June 27: Matthew Cocking departed York Factory up the Saskatchewan and reported seeing old Franceway's House (built 1761) and old Finley House (established 1760).(Cocking left in '72; Franceway's House built in '68; Finlay's House built in '71; Fromhold) 1766 "The Metis trader...Jean Baptiste Cadotte Sr....from Alexander Henry ...James Finlay and Peter Pond...went into the Saskatchewan and Athabasca country to establish contact with the Chipewyan, Red Knives, Dog Rib, Caribous and Stone people. They participated in opening up a trading territory to Athabasca country that covers a territory equivalent to Western Europe and is the most lucrative fur farm in America. From a European perspective it was a no mans land, waiting for the taking." (Not in '66; not for another decade & Henry & JB Sr. never did; Fromhold) "Francois Le Blonc (Blanc) whom Walter Cocking described as an ignorant Frenchman" (Matthew, not Walter; Cocking did not meet him until 1772; Fromhold) 1766 "Thomas Curry ventured to the valley of Saskatchewan. He entered into partnership with a James Finlay inducing him to build a trading post." (in '70; Fromhold) 1767 "Louis Primeau a free-trader that deserted the Hudson Bay Company (did not desert until after '75; Fromhold) 1769 "The Hudson Bay Company allowed Chief Factor Ferdinand Jacobs to send 6 men per season into the interior and they could only have a small quantity of trade goods for a temporary summer post....The Hudson Bay Company refused to accept the necessity to send men into the field and ordered York Factory to discontinue this practice." 1769-72 Samuel Hearne makes exploratory expeditions into the Northwest Territories (Jones 1996); "Matonabbe, a Chipewyan guide, a skilled leader of great prestige and a small group of natives led Samuel Hearne...for five thousand miles. They covered two hundred and fifty thousand square miles of the Northern Prairies." (did not go anywhere near the northern praires; Fromhold) 1770's "Buffalohead (Pierre or Paul) St. Germain a Metis guide is working the Athabasca Region this decade." (Maybe at a very late date with Peter Pond; Methy Portage not crossed by outsiders until '78 with the possible exception of Beaulieau; Fromhold) 1772 "Duncan McGillivray had written the lure of Rum is their first inducement to industry." (Garneau 2002) Metis; not in '72 "Le Doyen Beaulieu the Metis is born the son of Francois Beaulieu and a Montagnais mother and he spent most of his life around Lesser Slave Lake. His Father journeyed to the Pacific in 1793 with (I)- Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820). Many Metis, Coureurs de Bois and Hivernant Voyagers showed Mackenzie the way to the Pacific." (Chipewyan Mother - Montaganis is not a recognized tribal name; spent most of his life on Great Slave Lake. No metis/Cour de Bois/Hivernant known to have shown Mackenzie the way - he used Indian guides. Some of his crew may have already been familiar with the lower Peace River and some may have been metis; Fromhold) 1773 "The Hudson Bay Company establishes it's first inland trading shack. One hundred and sixty Metis and Montreal Traders virtually surround this little six man Hudson Bay Company shack." "Samuel Hearne...Garret, Slater and five others finally established the first inland trading post (a log shack) for the Hudson Bay Company sixty miles beyond the Pas at Oine Island Lake just north of the Saskatchewan." (Cumberland House on Pine Island Lake built by Hearne in '74; Fromhold) 1774 "Peter Pangman...is trading Lake Dauphin. Later he ventured to York Factory and is arrested by Mathew Cocking for illegal trading and his furs are confiscated." (Given previously as happening in spring of '72; Fromhold) "Samuel Hearne...of the Hudson Bay Company with two men and an Indian Chief established their first inland trading post called Cumberland House on the Saskatchewan River west of present day The Pas at Pine Island. This is the site of La Veredrye's Fort Paskoyac built some forty years earlier (Fort Paskoyac not built there; Fromhold) 1776 Fort A La Corne/Des Prairies/Nipawin; "At or near this site was Fort Mosquito, Fort Batoche, Fort Louis, Fort La Corne, Fort Carlton, however most referred to the various houses as either Nippowee or La Corne." (Ft. Carlton not near this site; Fromhold) 1776 Feb 19; Bennington (VT); Daniel Williams Harmon born...1778 Feb 19; Bennington (VT); Daniel Williams Harmon born" 1777 "Peter Fidler b-1777 married Mary Indian b-1765 likely North West." (Fiddler born 1769; Fromhold) "Frobisher built a Fort on English River (Churchill River) 190 miles from Cumberland House. He also built on Isle a La Crosse Lake." (In '76; Fromhold) 1778 "Peter Pond established the Old Establishment 30 miles south of Lake Athabasca in September." (Pond's House was never called Old Establishment; Old Establisment was later built some 250 miles up the Peace River; Fromhold) 1779 "Alexander Henry Sr. from Grand Pointe (Wisconsin) knowing the South West fur supply would decline, wintered at Cumberland House on the Saskatchewan with the Frobisher brothers...Benjamin Frobisher... and...Joseph Frobisher" (In '75; Fromhold) "(I)-John Thomas upon returning to Moose Factory reported many Englishmen of the Hudson Bay Company now had their own Indian women." (Garneau elsewhere states that John Thomas was born 1765, 1766 and did not arrive in Canada until 1789; Fromhold) "William Tomison...instructions from London were to build more trading posts. He built his own house called Cumberland House, a thirty-seven by twenty-seven foot structure, including a garden of turnips and radishes." (Built by Hearne in '74; Fromhold) "A free traders post on Eagle Hills (Saskatchewan) is destroyed by the Gros Ventre." (Eagle Hills Fort destroyed '80 by Cree; Fromhold) "The Indians were determined to direct the buffalo from Hudson House region. They reasoned the English would be unable to procure their own rations and they would acquire all the goods at famine prices. The Cree and Assiniboine set fire to the plains but they drove the buffalo so far a field that they entered into starvation and had to beg the forts for food." (Actually in '81; Fromhold) 1780 Metis use Pembina as a staging point for the Great Buffalo Hunts. (Great Hunts not yet inaugurated; Fromhold) "Fort Crevecoeur on the Illinois is built this year then Fort St. Louis and Fort Prud-homme on the Mississippi below the Ohio. These posts are to control the trade and anyone not authorized had their goods and furs seized. It is noteworthy that La Salle's men traveled north to trade with the Ottawa and assiniboine, despite the fact that he was specifically forbade to trade with these Montreal fur suppliers. The Coureurs de Boise and Metis watched this strategy with growing alarm. They concluded that Royal Edicts had little or no authority. They focused their attention to Michilimackinac as their main secure base of operations. Some however remarked that the Metis and Coureurs de Boise had their little cabins everywhere from Lake Winnipeg south to the Ohio and north to Hudson Bay, not to mention into the far west. At some locations scores of traders gathered while at others only two or three men and their families resided." (La Salle was 100 years earlier; built Crevecourt in Jan, 1680; St. Louis & Prud-Homme above the Ohio; Fromhold) "Fort Alexandria on the Assiniboine River 5 miles above Fort Pelly is established by the North West Company. It is originally called Fort Tremblant and is also known as Popular Fort. (given by others as in '95 & Tremblant in '93; Poplar Fort; Fromhold) 1781 "Meanwhile at Fort Paskoyac (The Pas) a smallpox epidemic of last year spread as far north as Saskatchewan River system and this year reached the Athabasca region and the Barren Ground where ninety percent of the Chipewyan in the Barren Ground died. Very few Europeans caught the disease and they smoked every thing with flour of sulfur though several of their country wives died. Trade dropped off as few of the survivors came to trade. David Thompson (must be a different David Thompson as he was not on site until 1784) recorded that traders exchanged new blankets for beaver robes that are spread over dead Indian bodies." (No post at The Pas; at Cumberland instead. Thompson records what he heard had happened - but not at Paskoyac; Fromhold) 1782 "William Walker noted that when the Indians (Cree) contacted smallpox the sick are abandoned as they believe there is no hope of recovery, some thereby perish due to starvation. This is a very interesting cultural change as they were previously noted as caring for their sick and aged, the numbers of sick likely overwhelmed them. The death rate is believed higher among males than females because during high fevers the men would throw themselves into lakes and rivers attempting to cool themselves." (Historically the Cree have never shown much care or respect for the aged; e.g., old warriors were generally ridiculed, and old chiefs abandoned or deposed; Fromhold) "Edward Umfreville a prisoner of war is taken by La Perouse and deported to France for ransom. His wife and daughter Louise is abandoned in Ruperts Land." (Did not have a wife & Louise until '90. ; Fromhold) Mar: "Jean Etienne Waddens...a Swiss Protestant Nor'wester from Montreal, is shot and killed by either Peter Pond...or his associate Toussaint Le Sueur at Lac La Ronge (Saskatchewan). This is not the first death attributed to Peter Pond and his associates. Peter Pond escaped retribution and fled the North West Territories." (elsewhere states it is in '87 at Grand Rapids. given by others as '81 at La Ronge; Fromhold) 1783 James Bird born (1773; Fromhold) 1784 "The North West Company began operating this year. They made Grande Pointe their strategic decision center." (Grand Porgage?; Fromhold) "William Sinclair b-1784 Scotland married Margaret Metis b-1786 most likely North West. (William b. 1766 Orkney Isl., Married Margaret Holden 1794 @ Neestooyan. Wm. Jr. born @ Nestooyan 1794; Fromhold) 1785 William Sinclair born (biography gives it as '95c. According to statement above (1784), his mother & father were not born until '84 and '86; Fromhold) "James (Jimmy Jock) Bird (1785-1892) Metis is born most likely York Factory son of (I)-James Bird and most likely a Cree woman." (J. Bird Sr. born c'73, Jr. c'92; Fromhold) 1786 "Mary Sinclair, Metis, born 1786 North West daughter William Sinclair, living St. John, Red River 1870 census." (Not Mary Sinclair Inkster; b.1811; possibly Mary McKay Sinclair, wife William Jr.? see 1784 & '85, above; Fromhold) Ft. Resolution; "The North West Company established a trading post on the South Shore of Great Slave Lake." (refering to Grant's House; Resolution named c. 1830; Fromhold) "The H.B.C. established Manchester House on the North Saskatchewan River 42 miles above Battleford, Saskatchewan." (before '86; Fromhold) 1787 "The rivalry between these groups ended with the murder of trader Waddon at Grande Portage. This outrage so shocked the French trading community that they resolved to join their interests and thereby formed the North West Company." (Garneau elsewhere states that Waden killed in '82 at Isle A La Ronge. John Scott was killed this year on the Athabasca River, leading to the forming of the NWCo; Fromhold) "The Assiniboine advised Peter Pond...that the journey to the northern sea is a 'many season's trip' and the Inuit is not friendly people." (Pond has been on the Athabasca for a decade; there are no Assiniboin within a thousand miles; Fromhold) 1788 "Boyer's Trading Post is established on the Peace River at present day Fort Vermillion. This fort was relocated in 1831 to its present site. Fort Vermillion is named after the red ochre deposits nearby that the natives used." (Built c.'86-88 18 km. downstream from present townsite. HBC builds a post at present townsite in '30 & relocate from upstream; Fromhold) "Fort Chipewyan was also establish this year by the North West Company Roderick MacKenzie a cousin of (II)-Alexander MacKenzie (1764-1820). It was located at the hub of the Athabasca, Peace and Slave Rivers. This was a scene of a fierce struggle between the dominate North West Company, the XL Company and the Hudson Bay Company for this strategic trading location." (Fort Chipewyan # 1 was built 50 km. away from the Peace/Slave, across the lake, from the later site; the Company rivalries did not develop until 27 years later; Fromhold) 1789 "H.B.C. built South Branch House 65 miles above the forks on the South Saskatchewan River." (Chesterfield House; variously given as built in '90 or '91 120 miles upriver and at the jct. of Red Deer & South Sask. River. This latter probably not built until 1800; Fromhold) "N.W.C built before 1789 Upper Red River House near Grand Forks, North Dakota and Bedfont House on Reindeer Lake." (Bedford House; built '96. Fromhold) "Peter Pond with his assistant (I)-Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) built Fort Chipewyan then discovered that the MacKenzie River emptied into the Arctic not the Pacific as Peter Pond believed." (Neither Pond nor Mackenzie built Ft. Chipewyan. Pond was already gone & Mackenzie on his way to the arctic; Fromhold) June 3: A native party under the leadership of English Chief and the Nor'wester Francois Barreau (Barrieu, Beriault, Beaulieu), Charles Steinbruck, Charles Ducette (Doucette), Joseph Landry, Pierre de Lorme (Delorme) and two Native wives under the overall leadership of (II)- Alexander Mackenzie (1764-1820) set off for the Beaufort Sea." 1790 "(II)-Louis Chattellain (Chatelain)...is in charge of a fort on the south Saskatchewan River that is attacked by 150 Rapid Indians (Dakota Sioux). All but one Englishman is killed. The North West Company post had three Frenchmen and several children and withstood the assault. The objective of the attack appears to be for plunder." (Rapid Indians are Atsina, not Dakota; Chatelain in charge of South Branch House, which withstood the assault, not the HBC Chesterfield Ho. It was in 1794; Fromhold) "Colin Campbell b-1790" (Given by others as 1787; Fromhold) "Jacques d'Eglise a Frenchman from St. Louis is trading with the Mandan in North Dakota and reports the British traders from Assiniboine are among them." (In '91; Fromhold) "d'Eglise lived among the Missouris 1790 to 1792" (Lived among the Mandan 1791-93; Fromhold) "Americans are along the Mississippi, Americans and British are in Oregon and the Russians are in California." (In Oregon ?; Fromhold) "The Spanish occupied Vancouver Island about this time." (Nootka Convention establishes British ownership; Fromhold) Jun 9: "David Thompson...departed Cumberland House to survey the Saskatchewan River system. He had learned surveying and mapmaking while recovering from a broken leg." (Broken leg & learned surveying in '89/90; did not survey on the Saskatchewan until fall of '93; Fromhold) 1791 "John Richard McKay Metis b-1791 North West Territories 1st married Catherine White Metis b-1833 North West Territories, 2nd married Harriet Ballendine Metis b-1800 most likely North West." (John Richards McKay b. Aug 10/92. Married Harriet first, c1815; Fromhold) "William Tomison...constructed Buckingham House a short distance from the earlier constructed Canadian House, Fort George, approximately 100 miles downstream from later Edmonton House (13 km southeast of Elk Point." (Buckingham House built in '80; Fromhold) 1792 "Phoebe Sinclair Metis b-1792 likely North West." (b.1804, Oxford Ho; see entries of 1874 & '85, above; Fromhold) "Marie Gray, Metis b-1795 likely North West. Possible daughter Robert Gray (1755-1806) of west coast expeditions??" (Born at Lesser Slave Lake; dtr. Thomas & Marie Grey; Fromhold) "Catherine Sinclair Metis b-1795...daughter (I)-William Sinclair (1760-1818) and Nahovway Swampy Cree, Metis""1784 Scotland; William Sinclair born (A biographer states 1766; Fromhold) "John Richards McKay, Metis grandson John Favel Jr, Metis and Titameg a Swampy Cree; married Harriet Ballenden daughter John Ballenden, Metis and Jane Indian Woman." (Richards born; marries Harriet in 1821. Fromhold) "Thompson was assigned to find a more direct route from Hudson Bay to Lake Athabasca but was frustrated by faltering support for his surveys." (In '96; Fromhold) "Chief Wa-won-je-gwon of the Red Lake Band marks the Expedition of Jean Baptiste Cadotte this year as the start of the permanent settle- ment of Red Lake. Prior to this time, he said, the People came and went with the seasons...Wa-won-je-gwon....Chief of Red Lake in 1850 stated that from the date of the expedition of Jean Baptiste Cadotte in 1792 or 1793 can be dated the settlement of Red Lake permanently by the Ojibwa. This is not correct but maybe he was referring to his own family or tribe?" (No indications of the existence of a Red Lake Band before this date; Fromhold) spring; Buckingham House "is nearly lost by fire....William Tomison claimed it was ordered set by Angus Shaw the trader in charge of Fort George. These forts remained side by side until 1800. (Not built until fall; Fromhold) 1793 "John McDonell's party at the Red River colony harvested ten bushels of potatoes." (McDonell was at Ft. Esparance (SK); Fromhold) "Cuthbert Grant Metis (Cree or Assiniboine) born late this year at Grant House aka Aspen House and Fort de la Riviere Tremblante (Saskatchewan)...Son Grant the wealthy Scot who died 1799 and a Cree or Assiniboine woman. Possibly the son of Robert Grant a Scot who built Grant House (Born to Cuthbert Grant, Sr; Fromhold) "(I)-William Sinclair b-1760...married...Nahovway a Swampy Cree, Metis at Nestoowyan post." (According to biographers, William born in '66; married in '94 according. Nestooyan not established until winter 94/95. See also Sinclair entries above; Fromhold) "Three leagues from Lake Winnipeg the River aux Mortis enters the Red River and it got its name because the Sioux or Naudaweiss massacres a large camp of Assiniboine, Cree and Sauteux there." (Riviere aux Morts; received it's name due to the burial mound of a mass burial from smallpox epidemic; Fromhold) "Charles Chaboillez....junior would become superintendent of the Metis Red River Settlement in 1804." (Of the NWC's Red River trading district; no such thing as a settlement supervisor; Fromhold) "The Parsnip and Sekani helped direct ...Alexander Mackenzie...to the great river and stinking lake, the Pacific, where white-men arrived in ships." (The Parsnip is a River; the Sekani an Indian tribe; Fromhold) "It is noteworthy that at Bella Coola...they encountered Natives with metal spearhead and European beads. Had those Metis reached the Pacific before him?" (No. The Indians traded with Russian, Spanish & English ships & posts along the coast; Fromhold) "John McDonell noted...a free trader party returning from the Missouri region." (A party left for the Missouri; Fromhold) 1794-95 "James Bird Sr....is in charge of Nepawi (David Thompson's journal states that Mr. Ross was in charge; Fromhold) "Jean Baptiste Paul Metis b-1794 North West Territories married Angelique Godon Metis b-1805 North West Territories." (J.B. Paul previously given as b.1788; Angelique as b. 1800; Fromhold) "The Gros Ventres attacked the English and Canadian Posts on the South Saskatchewan River. The English Posts are destroyed but the Canadians being well fortified against a surprise attack held." (There was only 1 English post - Chesterfield House. The Canadain Post had 3 defenders; Fromhold) "The North West Company commissioned the building of Fort Augustus, at the forks of the Saskatchewan" (At Edmonton (AB), not at the Forks; Fromhold) 1795 "Marie Favel Metis b-1795 likely North West daughter Humphrey Favel b-1725 and Jenny Indian b-1727." (Jenny is 54 ? Others say Humphrey (1771-) & Jane; Fromhold) "This is the apex of the Assinipoval Metis Nation. It has been dominated to date by Metis of French and Ojibwa ancestry." (Nation ? What government did they come under?; Fromhold) "Only 10 people claimed to be born at the Red River des Metis Settle- ment this year. This however would suggest a Settlement population of about 183 people not including those away in trade, freighting or the buffalo hunt." (A natural growth rate of .25% per annum would suggest a population of 400; Fromhold) "Louis Chastellain rebuilt the South Branch House (La Corne) that was destroyed in 1794. " (South Branch House is not La Corne; it was not destroyed in '94 & was not rebuilt this year but strengthened; It was neighboring Chesterfield House was destroyed; Fromhold) "Griffith Daniel b-1795 1st married Madeleine McKay Metis b-1825 Red River Settlement, 2nd marriage Madeleine b-1797." (Not the other way around ? Garneau consistetly places the earlier born women as second wifes; Fromhold) "The Red River Metis farmers are also cultivating corn, squashes, pumpkins, beans and potatoes that they obtained from the Indians. (First corn supplied by Shagwawkoosink in 1805; Fromhold) "Gareau arrived from River Le Souris (about one hundred and twenty five miles up the Assiniboine River)" Souris R. is downriver from Ft. Esparance; Fromhold) Apr 28: "Le Frene, the second Coeurs made trip to Mountain a la Bosse and discovered 7,360 drowned buffalo in the river, some lay from three to five files deep." (This was by McDonnell on May 18; Fromhold) 1796 "Mary Bunn born 1796 North West daughter Thomas Bunn" (b. Apr 15/98; Fromhold) "(IV)-Charles Chaboillez (Chaboiller)...a Metis, of the NMWC, junior of Michilimackinc and father Charles Jean Baptiste Chaboillez...senior wintered at Rat River." ('95 & '96 Charles Jr. stationed at Isle A La Crosse; Fromhold) 1797 "The N.W.C. established a trading post at Fond du Lac on the eastern shore of Lake Athabasca." (Not until '99; Fromhold) "Orkney fishing boats, flat bottomed with high pointed bow and stern are introduced into the Saskatchewan River. They are later to be called 'York Boats'. Some claim that although influenced by Orkney design, the York boat however was invented by the Metis. The York Boat was introduced because the English and Orkney were unable to master the canoe." (HBC already using York Boats in '88; Fromhold) "James Sutherland (1751-1797) is assigned...to Brandon House" (Assigned there in '95; Fromhold) 1798 "The Hudson Bay Company has 530 servants in the trade with 416 being from the Orkney Islands. Most if not all would abandon their country wives (Cree) and Orkney Metis children. The English would not allow the men to bring their families home. Until this time the men had no option as they had not ventured far from their trading shacks. Now that the Hudson Bay Company employees are aware of the Metis Colony at Red River many would join the Metis Colony and the Metis culture." (What about the college est. on the Orkney Islands in the '70's for the metis children of Orkneymen ?; Fromhold) Oct 1: Ft. Chipewyan; "Roderick MacKenzie claims sending the first Winter Express Canoe from the interior for Lake Superior this year. The canoe...arrived Sault Ste Marie May 17, 1799." (Winter express mail went overland - rivers are frozen in winter; Fromhold) 1799 "Mary Sinclair Metis b-1805 North West Territory." (Family biography gives 1811; Sinclair genealogy problems above; Fromhold) "Spring; David Thompson...stopped at Isle Las Crosse and met Charlotte Small" (Isle A La Crosse; probably met in winter '98/99; Fromhold) "David Thompson...and Duncan McGillivray...traveled the Bow River beyond Calgary". (Not until next fall; Fromhold) 1800 "Both companies built forts at Chesterfield house near Empress on the Red River." (Red Deer River - actually junction of the Red Deer/South Saskatchewan; Fromhold) "David Thompson...entered into treaty with the Piegans on the Bow River to allow a number of Saulteaux (Ojibwa), Iroquois and Nipissing traders to work the Stony Mountains....They discovered the Tete Jaune Cache Pass (Yellowhead Pass). They also opened the Athabasca Pass the gateway to the Columbia River Department." (Actually the passes were already well known to the Shinpoo and others; Fromhold) "A trader named Thomas Iroquois would later guide (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) over the Rocky Mountains to the Columbia..." (There is no historic documentation that he was more than a trapper; Fromhold) "It is noteworthy that most assume Thompson was the first to cross the Rocky Mountains into uncharted territory however many traders preceded him." (No such evidence; Fromhold) "Notably Jocko Findlay a Metis son James Findlay Sr. preceded him by at least a year but he is generally ignored in history books." (LeBlanc & LaGassie were sent across by Thompson in '00; Jacques Finlay & Jacques Cardinal cut the trail for Thompson in '06, and they and their families preceeded him in '07; Fromhold) "David Thompson...wintered Fort Terra Blanche in Edmonton in 1800, 1802, 1806 and 1807, then set out from here for the Columbia River. The Piegan would not allow the North West Company use of the pass to the Columbia. They expressed concern that the French Metis would arms trade with their enemy, the Kootenay (Water People). The murder of two Piegan, by Lewis of the United States, drew the Piegan to the Missouri to revenge their death and thus cleared the way for David Thompson, Fenian McDonald and the group of Metis to make the dash for the Columbia River. Thompson's wife, Charlotte Small, had a baby strapped to her back." (Terre Blanche is not in Edmonton; 1800/01 Thompson wintered at Rocky Mountain House 1801-10 Upper & Lower Terre Blanche closed 1802/03 wintered at Ft. Fork on Peace River. 1805/06 at Reed Lake Ho. (SK). 1806/07 at Rocky Mountain House. 1807/08 in British Columbia 1807 Set out from Rocky Mountain House One Peigan killed; FINAN McDonald; The Blackfoot stated they wanted the CREE to be curbed from crossing the mountains to bring guns to the west side people. Editor) "At the junction of the Miette and Athabasca rivers is Fitzhugh Place now named Jasper, Alberta after a North West Company supply post, for the mountain trade across Athabasca pass (where there are reeds), that is established about this time. It is noteworthy that after more than ten years of use, David Thompson, in 1811, would claim discovery of the Athabasca pass. Rocky Mountain House, birth (II)-Fanny Thompson Metis daughter (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) and Charlotte Small b-1785 Metis. (Fitzhugh was founded in 1911. Athabasca comes from OTA PASKWA, "There are prairies over there". Thompson made no such claim. Fanny born in '01, Joshua in '11 at Edmonton; Fromhold) 1801 "Payet an interpreter for Daniel Harmon at Fort Alexander has taken a Native Cree wife giving rum, dry goods etc. to a value of $200 to the parents as a gift." (Ft. Alexandria, Ft. Alexander is a different place; Fromhold) 1802 "The North West Company established Bow River Fort, fifty miles west of Fort La Jonquiere (Calgary)....Both Fort Saskatchewan, the North West Company and Fort Augustus, Hudson Bay Company, moved to Edmonton..." (No fort was built on the Bow R. until 1822; No evidence that La Jonquire was at Calgary - more probable on the North Saskatchewan. Fort Saskatchewan not built until 75 years later - means Fort Edmonton; Fromhold) "Chesterfield house, at this time, lies abandoned."... "Peter Fidler ...welcomed the XY Company men into his fort...a band...at Chester- field House..." Apr 21 "Fort Chesterfield is abandoned by all parties as the Gros Ventre and Crow people were planning to capture the fort." (It remained in operation for some more years; The traders now depart for York Factory & the Atsina were on the way to the Missouri. ; Fromhold) 1803 "William Connolly (Connoly) born Quebec died 1849 at Rat River House in the Athabasca Others suggest died 1848 Montreal 1st married Susanne a cree woman born Churchill" (William Jr. b1803, Wm. Sr. married Suzanne 1803. This is the famous Suzanne Pas De Nom case establishing common-law legal rights. No such place as Rat River or Rat River House in the Athabasca; Fromhold) "John George McTavish arrived Moose Factory this year and took a 'country wife' a (II)-Charlotte Thomas one of the Governor's daughters." (Charlotte not born until '05; Fromhold) 1804 "An Indian attack on old Fort du Lac..." (Fond du Lac; Fromhold) 1805 Daniel William Harmon "reported that a French Missionary lived in the vicinity of Fort Assiniboine for a number of years instructing the Natives in the Christian Religion." (No such place pre '23; presumably means Ft. Alexandria, Sask; Fromhold) "It is noteworthy that no white women are reported in the Red River area until 1806. The census of 1805 lists 110 white women and 167 white children. These would be primarily Metis of French origin....At this time there are no known white European women in the country and very few non-Metis men." (???) "Old Swan aka Ak Ko Makki a Sikiska chief drew a map of the west for Peter Fiddler of the Hudson Bay Company at Chesterfield House on the Red River and South Saskatchewan River. Fiddler upgraded the map to include all known information on the west and it was published." (Also given by Garneau as in '00; Fidler this year on Lake Athabasca. ; Fromhold) "Antoine Desjarlais claimed sovereignty over Red Deer Lake, Saskatche- wan..." (Red Deer Lake = Lac La Biche (AB); Fromhold) "September 11 Daniel Harmon is assigned to Cumberland House and James Hughes and (I)-David Thompson (1770-1857) and company passed..." (In 1806; Fromhold) Harmon "...eventually married his Country wife in 1819 and when he retired took his wife and two younger daughters Sally and Polly with him into retirement. His older children remained in the field." (Polly (Mary Patricia) was the oldest surviving child, born 1811, and was 9 when they moved east. All other children accompanied them or were born later; Fromhold) "December 27 Fort Chesterfield is again abandoned by all parties due to the continued objection of the Natives." (see 1806 entry; Fromhold) 1806 "The Lewis and Clark Expedition shot a Montana Peigan man in the back claiming he attempted to steal a gun. As a result no white-man was allowed in the Peigan Territory." (Americans not allowed in, Canadians continued to be welcome as traders; Fromhold) "Spring, Chesterfield House, the North West Company is under siege.... Blackfoot....This area would be abandoned for the next 16 years." (Elsewhere claimed to have been in Dec. '05. Both South Branch House & Chesterfield House known to be operating in '06, '08 and '10. Atsina, not Blackfoot; attack a camp of Nakoda; Fromhold) "Marie Anne Gaboury, wife of Jean Baptist Lagimodiere...at the Red River Metis Colony being the first known European woman in the settlement." (She was probably Metis - her children were; Fromhold) "Jacco (Jacques) Finlay a Metis wintered on the Saskatchewan above Kootenai Plains hoping to establish a trade route to the Columbia using the Howse Pass. Some claim he was marking a trail over the divide to the Columbia for David Thompsons trip in 1807. Finlay is likely following a well established Indian trail to the Columbia." (Finlay an employee of the NWCo out of Rocky Mountain House, working with Jacques Cardinal. Apparently no well established at the time as they needed to mark and slash one; Fromhold) "Archibald MacLeod established Clearwaters House and Fort McMurray. (No and No; Fromhold) "Hudson Bay withdrew from Chipewyan House" (Nottingham House; Fromhold) 1807-1867 Colin Fraser; 1819 "Colin Fraser b-1819" (1807; Fromhold) 1807 "David Thompson...North West Company, built Fort Kootenay, Windermere Lake." (Kootenae House was never known as Fort Kootenay, which was built later in Montana; Fromhold) Jan 6; Pembina; Marie (Garboury) Lagimodiere "had a baby girl called Reine, only the second known non Metis child born in the prairies." (She was metis; Fromhold) 1"Both the Hudson Bay Company and the North West Company built Forts at Upper Terra Blanche at White Mud Creek in West Edmonton." (Terre Blanche; Not White Mud Creek, Wabamun (WAPIMAN, "White, Mirror" Creek ; Fromhold) December 4: Sturgeon Lake (Alberta) birth George Harmon Metis...son Daniel Williams Harmon" (Not likely; Harmon still on the South Saskatchewan at this time; Fromhold) "Lizzette Laval...died" (1862 Feb 4; Fromhold) 1808"Jean Baptiste Lagimoniere from Maskinonge had a child born in Pembina this year with his Canadian bride claiming to be the first legitimate white child born on the Red River." (Refers to child of Jan '07?; Fromhold) 1852 "Mrs Grant stayed on at North West River where Donald A. Smith (1820- ) was in charge of Esquimeaux Bay as Chief." (Garneau 2002) 1809 "Pierre Genou alias Gagnon and Ginan voyager for the North West Company is reported with...David Thompson...this and next year. (Joseph, not Pierre; Fromhold) "Joseph Hawse of the Hudson Bay journeyed from Edmonton House to the Rocky Mountains. He also traveled from Augustus House, Fort Saskatchewan, across the continental divide to Flathead Lake, Montana ...and returned with thirty-six packs of furs." (Edmonton House and Augustus House are the same location; Fort Saskatchewan did not exist at that time; he returned in '10; Fromhold) "The old abandoned Fort Augustus, located one mile above Sturgeon River mouth (Fort Saskatchewan)" (Fort Saskatchewan not built for another 65 years; Fromhold) "Alexander Henry the younger on the Saskatchewan River opposite the mouth of the Vermilion River with eleven canoes of trade goods noted James Bird and his family arrived by canoe from York Factory. Then departed with his family on horseback, presumably for Fort Edmonton." (This statement mixes events 2 months apart; Fromhold) 1810-1819 "Daniel Harmon lived in Carrier Country 1810-1819 and married a native woman." (Brought his wife Elizabeth with him, never married another woman; Fromhold) "Daniel Harmon (1778-1845) reports that of nine bushels potatoes planted yields 150 bushels." (Harmon's original manuscript states 250. Fromhold) "Fort Augustus and Fort Saskatchewan moved seventy miles down stream to White Earth Creek. They built in a common stockade and retained the Augustus and Edmonton names, but the traders called it Fort White Earth, Terra Blanche, and Lower White Earth Post." (Lower Terre Blanche House; Fort Saskatchewan did not exist for another 65 years. Fromhold) 1811 "Hudson Bay records indicate that two calves are shipped by boat inland from York Factory where they are born. This is believed to be the first record of the cattle industry in the prairies." (Wm. Sinclair at Oxford Ho. was earlier; Fromhold) "David Thompson...wintered Old Fort Augustus 1810/11" (Thompson wintered at Boat Encampment, BC; Fromhold) "Churchill and York report a severe shortage of provisions. A request is sent to Bas de la River (Winnipeg) and Red River" (Bas de La Rivere is Ft. Alexander, not Winnipeg; Fromhold) 1811 "other traders in the Oregon are" Regis Brugiere, William Cannon, Alexander Carson, Joseph St. Martin, Ben Jones, Basil Lapensee, Ignace Lapensee; (Brugiere was an Iroquois freeman trapper; Canning was a millwright; Carson, Jones and St. Martin were hunters and trappers and did not arrive until at least 1812, Carson hired on as a gunsmith; the two Lapensee brothers drowned at the mouth of the Columbia before reaching the Oregon; Fromhold) 1812 "Jacques Cardinal Sr. of St. Genevieve, Quebec from Fort des Prairies to Columbia for the North West Company until merger 1821." (Jacques stationed at Jasper House until '35; from Rocky Mountain House; Fromhold) "October: The Plains fire of this year is the most devastating to hit the upper Saskatchewan...(Not the Oct 1810 fire ? no mention of this in other records; Fromhold) 1813 "Mrs. Margaret Thomas died December 31, 1813 of gout." (Still alive in 1822; Fromhold) 1815 Hugh Monroe "is said to have been indentured for three years...to the Hudson Bay Company and posted to Edmonton House. It is alleged he departed a Hudson Bay Company warehouse in Montreal in 1815, traveling to Edmonton House via York Factory. It is highly likely he didn't depart until after 1821, when the North West Company merged with the Hudson Bay Company. This assumption is based on the fact that his first child was born in 1825, Rocky Mountain House; suggesting a departure after 1821." (It is generally accepted that he entered HBC service in '13, the canoe brigade wintered on L. Winnipeg, not York Factory, and he was at Edmonton in '14. Son John was born in '16 in Montana. Editor) Great Slave Lake; "The Hudson Bay Company...establish their post... and would name the North West Company Post as Fort Resolution" (Hay River Post # 1 established in '16; Ft. Res not named until '30's. Fromhold) 1817 "The British say the inclusion of the Ojibwa in the treaty infuriated the Cree....It is noteworthy that the Cree is also late comers to this region that the former peoples were the Blackfoot....both people had arrived Red River about the same time..." (The Cree arrived at least 2 generations earlier; the Blackfoot were never there in the last 15,000 years; Fromhold) "(I)-John Lewis...1st married Jane Ballendine Metis...2nd marriage Margaret Metis" (As usual, Garneau has these marriages reversed; Fromhold) 1818 "James Kipp...married 1st Medicine Bird Mandan, 2nd Four Bears (Earth Woman) also Mandan and he was reported to also been married to the daughter of Alexander Culbertson son Joseph Culbertson and Mary Finley and Natawischicksina (Blackfoot)." (Earth Lodge Woman, daughter of Four Bears; NATOYIS TSIKSINA (Natowista); Fromhold) "Father Dumoulin thereby lost his mission and returned to Quebec." (Fr. Dumoulin arrived in this year and remained to '23; Fromhold) 1819 "Hudson Bay Company posts, namely, Hudson House, near the forks of the north and south Saskatchewan Rivers, Fort George, to the West, and Fort Augustus in Edmonton." (Ft. George (a NWCo post) & Hudson's House long since abandoned; Fromhold) "The Journey to the Polar Sea (1819-22) by John Franklin departed Fort Chipewyan with....Most would perish during this expedition. (They died in the expedition of 1820-21; Fromhold) "In Athabasca John Clark of British Hudson Bay Company known for his hate for the Nor'wester is recklessly short of provisions and faced with the hostility of the dominant Nor'wester lost sixteen men through starvation before heading back to the safety of York Factory." (Actually in 1816; Fromhold) "Daniel William Harmon...retired from the company and could not abandon his wife as is the growing English custom." (retire until '21; took family east this year; Fromhold) 1821 "Chief Peguis...during the Seven Oaks conflict he harbored a Scottish mother and her children." (Should be in '16; Fromhold) "The English reported the Cree still considered the Ojibwa as advancing on their lands. An evil thought planted by the English, but these rumors..." (Not evil rumors, it was true; Fromhold) "Fort Wedderburn, Mackenzie River" (On Lake Athabasca, not Mackenzie River; Fromhold) 1822 "John Rowland (Rowand) (1787-1854) then sent (II)-James (Jimmy Jock) Bird...into the southern district to learn the Blackfoot language and, hopefully, win the Blackfoot, Blood and Piegan as trade customers for the company. Jimmy Jock, a Metis, learned the language ..." (Only the first sentence applies to this year, the rest is spread over the next 50 years; Fromhold) "Donald MacKenzie, John Rowand, Edward Harriot with 108 men, 14 women and 21 children again established Chesterfield House. It is noteworthy that they are surrounded by over 15,000 natives who are not pleased with a fort in their territory." (Mackenzie, Rowand & about half the men remained at Bow Fort. The Blackfoot, Cree and Nakoda were not displeased - the Atsina, who were being victimized by the others, were Fromhold) "(I)-John Lewis...2nd marriage Margaret Metis" (Garneau has these reversed, Margaret was the 1st wife, and this was Jane Ballantyne; Fromhold) 1823 Mary Favel born (May 1824. Mary born to Thomas & Sarah (Trout) FAVEL; Fromhold) "Having failed at Chesterfield house, John Rowand (1787-1854) is assigned to the well-established Fort Augustus..." (Rowand arrives from Bow Fort. Chesterfield Ho. still in operation; Fromhold) "This venture like those of the past failed and the Fort is again abandoned" (This was actually Bow Fort, Chesterfield House operated for another 2 years; Fromhold) "His first wife was Elisabeth MacKay...then her sister Betsy" (Betsy (aka. Bethsy) is the same person as Elisabeth (aka. Elizabeth); Fromhold) "General Cuthbert Grant...married Marie McGillis a halfbreed...the first in a church." Grant's 3rd marriage "Marie McGillis Metis... daughter Angus McGillis...Margaret Notinikaban (Vent de Bout)... married Cuthbert James Grant Jr....Captain de Metis and Warden of the Plains." "Cuthbert Grant...2nd marriage Marie Desmarais" "Madeline Desmarois and a daughter named Maria who married Pascal Breland. Some suggest he bedded both McGillis sisters Margaret and Marie at the same time. Margaret had one child and Marie nine children." (And in English this means ?; Fromhold) "Piche, a Metis from Fort Edmonton, is reported to have requested that Bishop Provencher of Red River send a priest to Fort Edmonton. More likely, on a trading trip, he had made mention that the Wesleyan Missionary Rundle had set up shop at the Fort, and that it would alarm the Catholics, especially as he was aware that John Rowand (1787-1854) didn't want missionaries in his domain." (Actually Louis Piche, aka. Peechee, Pesew, was Head Chief of the Mountain Cree. Originally from the Great Lakes - grandson of Jean Nicolet - he had been with Peter Pond in 1778 and was the one who accidentally killed Ross, which led to the banishment of Peter Pond and the formation of the North West Company. In the early 1840's he had once again come into contact with early missionaries, and decided to ask for a priest - as did some of his related peoples among the Flathead Indians - to counterbalance Rev. Rundle's influence. He sent his son Alexis Piche (Chief Bobtail) to Red River specifically to ask for a priest. a few years earlier; Fromhold) 1824 "The Metis Empire was greater than the Roman Empire providing clear evidence of a superior culture that can co-ordinate an Empire without blood shed through sharing and caring" (What an absurd statement. The Metis never constituted anything that could remotely be called an 'Empire'. There was no government and administration for the area they wandered around in, muuch less did they exhibit the architectural and artistic heights that empires achieve. They and barely managed to govern anything bigger than an encampment, and were little more than itinerant peddlars or hunters throughout most of this so-called 'Empire'. They were somewhat less of an empire than the Haida; Fromhold) "Peter Skene Ogden...is ordered into the Oregon Territory to trap the region bare...explored the...lower Colorado River." (To help improve the district (Phillips 1967v2:447). Upper Colorado; Fromhold) "Ogden is one of those traders who practiced serial marriages where he acquired a new wife when he moved." (Garneau 2002) No real evidence of such. They seem to have lasted years and not related to his transfers (he was only transfered once). He even traveled to Edmonton to marry Phorsine (his first love) and brought her back to the Columbia; Fromhold) "Upon the death of his country wife he married another woman a Mrs Mary Lowman" (In 1841/42; Fromhold) "Bird totally ignored his Metis children by his first country wife(s?) and focused his last will on his last wife's children." (Should be in '56; Fromhold) 1825 "The Metis had accomplished, with minor blood shed more territorial authority than any European peoples including the Roman Empire. The French had opened a continent and the Metis had humanely tamed it. Only the aboriginal peoples whom we call Indians held greater territorial sovereignty covering two continents which when compared to Europe or Asia lived in relative peace, with a higher quality of health, variety of food and from a bias point of view well being, therefore civilization. Even with the more aggressive neighbors to the south, we had and still have the longest undefended border in the world. No other civilization can make that claim as they must rely on might not right to maintain their civilization." (Garneau 2002) another absurd statement. The Metis had held NO territorial authority except in a few scattered villages in Red River; Though the Indians held sovreignity over territory, there was no pan-tribal unity and, with the exception of the Cree and affiliated Nehiyapwat Confederacy, the tribal territoris were invariably small territories rarely larger than a state; Fromhold) 1827 Jun 27: Fort Langley (BC); "established by Jame MacMillan and a company of men." (Garneau 2002) Aug 1; Ft. Langley; McMillan cuts the "first stick for the Fort," (McDonald 1970:38). 1830 "The Hudson Bay Company built Fort Pitt just east of the now Alberta, Saskatchewan border." (Not in '27 ?; Fromhold) "Tete Jaune alias Pierre Bostonais a blond Iroquois is trading the Yellowknife Pass around this period." (Yellowhead Pass; Pierre Bostonais killed '27/28; Fromhold) "The Freemen from Pembina (Red River) has been in continual contact with the Dakota Peoples on the Missouri River since before the 1790's. They usually traveled with the Western Ojibway and Plains Cree" (No indication that either Ojibway, Cree or Dakota on the Missouri River yet at this time; Fromhold) 1831 James Kipp "retired...on his Missouri farm near Independence, Montana." (Missouri, not Montana; Fromhold) "Fort Mistassini (near James Bay) birth Richard Charles Hardisty" "Richard Hardisty...is born...at Moose Factory" "Moose Factory (place where white man repaired cart wheel with the jaw bone of the moose)." (This is the name of Moose Jaw, SK, not Moose Factory; Fromhold) 1833 "David Thompson...built Bow Fort 47 miles west of Calgary on the Morley Reserve on a 115 foot high bluff." (David Thompson was living in destitution retired in Montreal at the time; Bow Fort/Peigan Post built by J.E. Harriott in '32; there was no reserve there at that time; Fromhold) "Peter Crasmus, Metis b-1833" (Erasmus. 1834, according to the autobiography; Fromhold) 1834 "John Rowland (Rowand?), Metis b-1834 Alberta possible son John Rowand? (1787-1854)" (No; Fromhold) 1836 "Colin Fraser b-1819" (Born c1805; Fromhold) 1838 "William Todd a physician at Fort Pelly on the Assiniboine River (Saskatchewan) used a cowpox virus to vaccinate the Fort and the Indians. He taught the Indians how to vaccinate their own people and those who were vaccinate were spared a high mortality rate." (The epidemic was in fall/winter 1836 to winter/spring 1838; Fromhold) "Six thousand natives, out of approximately nine thousand, perished this year." (A meaningless statement; of what tribe ? There was a population of over 60,000 on the northern plains; Fromhold) 1840 "Jimmy Jock...loved to play tricks when acting as interpreter for Reverand Robert Rundle or Father De Smet." (Says who? Wrong year anyhow for either Rundle or De Smet; Fromhold) Crooked Back dies (Still alive in '72; Fromhold) "Henry Bird Steinhauer, an Ojibwa Indian and Methodist Missionary, entered Alberta" (Did not arrive until 1855; Fromhold) "The reverend Robert Terrill Rundle...arrived 1839 or 1840" (Late 1840. Saskatoon did not exist for another half century; Fromhold) "Due to his failing health, he left in 1847." (He left in '48; Fromhold) "Piche, a Metis from Fort Edmonton, is reported to have requested that Bishop Provencher of Red River send a priest to Fort Edmonton. More likely, on a trading trip, he had made mention that the Wesleyan Missionary Rundle had set up shop at the Fort, and that it would alarm the Catholics, especially as he was aware that John Rowand (1787-1854) didn't want missionaries in his domain." (Piche was not a trader and did not go to Red River that year. He sent his sons Alexis & Jean Baptiste. Rowand had also requested missionariers; Fromhold) "Henry Bird Steinhauer...entered Alberta" (Not until '56; Fromhold) 1841 "Reverend R. T. Rundle, June 1841 camped at the foot of Cascade Mountain, Banff, climbed it, and later visited the Bow Falls." (In June he was traveling from Ft. Carlton to Edmonton; Fromhold) "Simpson, Peyton, Rodgers, and Amos E. Erye are at Fort Bridger." (Fort Bridger not built until '42/43; Fromhold) 1842 "Father J.B. Thibeault (Thibault), an Oblate (Order of Mary Immaculate) from St. Boniface, arrived at Fort Edmonton....Bishop Provercifer commissioned him.....He met Piche...at Fort Edmonton.... (Bishop Provenchere; did not meet Piche; Fromhold) "he would establish a mission at Lac Ste Anne to serve that growing fishing community." (There is little indication that there was a set- tlement there before the arrival of Thibault. The first reference to fishing there is in this year; Fromhold) 1843 "Father M. Thibeault visited Devil's Lake...There were about forty houses occupied by Metis, Cree, Assiniboine and Blackfoot." (There were 5 families, max (Drouin 1973:38); no Blackfoot except the odd orphan, have ever lived at Lac St. Anne; Fromhold) 1845 "Father M. Thibeault visited Notre Dame Des Victoires, Red Deer Lake as a potential mission site as Metis and Indian occupy it." (Visits in '44; Fromhold) "The first confirmed Europeans in Kananaskis Country, west of Calgary, Alberta, were James Sinclair and 15 families with their livestock, whom he was leading over the mountains to settle in Washington, U.S.A." (The year was 1854; They were all Metis from Red River; Joseph Louis Piche and his Metis had been hunting in the Kananskis since 1823; Fromhold) Paul Kane was not in the west until 1846; Fromhold) 1846 "Wheat is grown at Fort Edmonton on a trial basis." (First grown in 1825; Fromhold) 1847 "Paul Kane met Piegan Chief (II)-James (Jimmy Jock) Bird...at Rocky Mountain House where he was temporarily in charge, and he was impressed. Kane found him hospitable and trustworthy, whereas the missionaries and some traders held him in low esteem." (In Apr '48; Bird was still with the Asini Wachi Wininiwak Cree & Nakoda and had not yet joined the Peigan ; Fromhold) 1849 "It is believed the first Orkney 'York Boat' built in Canada is built for use on the Albany River by the Metis." (Already in use in 1788; Fromhold) "Collin Frazer, Metis b-1849 N.W.T.""George Pendleton born to Colin Fraser" (Family biog. states 1850 for Colin; Fromhold) "Gabriel Lafleur, Metis b-1849...married about 1874 Alberta Julienne Metis b-1869" (When Julienne was 5 ?; Fromhold) 1850 "The Metis all use Red River carts while engaged in buffalo hunting, trading and freighting. Those employed in freighting are carving overland routes from Fort Garry, Portage La Prairie, Fort Ellice, Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt, Fort Victoria and Fort Edmonton. Some would later refer to this route as the Touchwood Trail as it passed the Touchwood Hills." (Victoria Mission not established for another decade, Fort Victoria not for another two. Fromhold) "Maskepatoon...b-1812" (Garneau 2002) McDougall gave it as around 1805; Fromhold) "Maskepatoon...achieved a peace treaty between the Blackfoot and Cree at Peace Hills near Wetaskiwin." (No record of this such; in '64, '67; Fromhold) "Joseph Smith founded the church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormonism)..." (Generally said to have been established 1830; already well established by 1850; Fromhold) 1851 "Simon Whitford b-1851 Red River" (Elsewhere given as 1849 Alberta; Fromhold) "Elizabeth b-1860 Red River" (Elsewhere given as 1859 Alberta. Actually born at Victoria, Alberta; Fromhold) "Simon Whitford...married about 1874 Red River Elizabeth" (Married at Victoria, AB; Fromhold) 1852 Fr. Lacombe dies at Quebec 1916; actually reputedly died at Midnapore Dec 11, 1916. (Fromhold) Donald A. Smith born 1820 (Elsewhere states "Donald A. Smith born 1808 in Scotland". 1853 "Father Remas settled at Notre Dame Des Victoires (Red Deer Lake), among the Metis, Cree and Montagnais from Athabasca. The Ile- a-la-crosse Indians are also living there." (No indication of Indians from Isle A La Crosse were ever there; nor Chipewyan from the Athabasca; Fromhold) All the Metis and Indians were away on the hunt leaving Father Remas quite alone....Lacombe took Remas back to Lac Ste Anne... (Lacombe did not visit Lac La Biche until 1854; Fromhold) 1854 Dec; Rocky Mountain House "reported that the Cree had set fire to the plains, there were no buffalo near there. This is likely so that the Hudson Bay Company would have to trade goods for meat." (Not likely; The HBC posts were always short of provisions, especially Rocky Mountain House, and purchased all they could get. Most posts, including RMH, employed several families of Hunters - including entire Indian bands - especially over the winter. The RMH Cree were never known to set a fire on purpose; Fromhold) 1855 "They encountered a Metis population on the shores of Small Slave Lake. Colin Fraser was in command of the trading post at this location." (Fraser was in charge at Jasper 1836-67; Fromhold) "Father Remas is assigned to Lac Ste Anne under Father Lacombe" (Fr. Remas is assigned as Lacombe's Instructor; Fromhold) "Indian Writings on the Milk River" (They are Pictographs, not 'Indian Writings'. Technically they MIGHT be ideograms. Syllabics is one type 'Indian Writing'; Fromhold) 1857 "He was to travel via the Hudson Bay barges" (The H.B.Co. never operated barges on the Saskatchewan, they were York Boats; Fromhold) "Palliser...arrived Red River to hire some men of the Country for an expedition. Dr James Hector...was an obvious choice." (Hector was not hired at Red River; Fromhold) 1858 "...the Kootenay Pass was well known for many years and the Minnesota Faribault Expedition had selected this route before starting." (but a few sentences earlier states that the first white man to discover the pass was Blakiston in August of this year; Fromhold) "Kicking Horse Pass a.k.a. Kootenay Pass" (No; Fromhold) 1859 "The first steamship...arrives at Fort Garry...called the Anson Northrop....The Hudson Bay Company responded to this threat by buying the steamship...and raising freight rates to prohibitive levels on any goods carried for the Metis free traders." (The owner/builder of the ship was named Anson Northrop; the HBC bought into the business venture as a partner; Fromhold) Oct 4; Bow R; Southesk party; "...also met some advance members of the Palliser party who were on their way to the Pacific." (No record of Southesk meeting Palliser's people. Earlier missed Hector by a couple of days; Fromhold) 1860 "Another expedition of forty Metis families...left on their annual fur trading trip...beyond the forks of the Belly and Paul Rivers near the head waters of the Saskatchewan a few miles north of the 49th parallel." (No such place; Fromhold) "Father's Lacombe, Remas and Train make Lake Saint Anne their rendezvous point with its chapel, a good house, school and a convent" (Fr. Frain left in '60; Lacombe fed up with Lac St. Anne & preparing to move to St. Albert; Fromhold) 1861 "Louis Dagnault b-1861 Red River married about 1881 N.W.T. Mary Metis b-1869 N.W.T., children include St. Pierre b-1822 N.W.T...all living Fort Edmonton 1991." (Good trick; Fromhold) 1862 "Reverend's George and John McDougall established the Victoria Mission" (John did not arrive until '63. Victoria Mission opened in summer/fall of '63; Fromhold) 1865 "John George (Kootenai) Brown...arrived Fort Edmonton to pan gold." (did not go to Edmonton & may never have been there; Fromhold) 1865 "James Gibbson, Sam Livingstone, Tom Riley, George Detwiten, John Healy, Joe Kipp and Charles Thomas...arrived Fort Edmonton." (Gibbons, Detweiler; arrived in '64. Healy and Kipp did not; Fromhold) Richard Hardisty "married...Elizabeth Victoria at Victoria Post" (Victoria Elizabeth McDougall; Fromhold) 1866 St. Albert; "Fathers Tissot and Andre arrived St. Albert." (in '65; Fromhold) "The battle of Lodge Trail Ridge (Fetterman Battle)...resulted in the complete annulation of the American army." (The entire U.S. Army, let alone all the American armies, were not annihalated. It was known to the Sioux as the Battle of 100 Slain; Fromhold) 1867 "Marguerite Christe...moved to Fort Edmonton this year." (The family moved to Edmonton in 1858; Fromhold) "Residential boarding schools for natives is growing in popularity among Eastern Canadians as a way to achieve cultural assimilation ...This model is the same model as the Nazi Concentration camps, only the target is different, the mind and soul vs. the body." (Do you even know what you are talking about?; Fromhold) "Fifty men are at Fort Edmonton included a group of miners from the Omineca Gold Fields" (Not '68? gold not discovered on the Omineca until that year; Fromhold) 1869 "A three hundred and eight six pound Manito Stone (meteorite) is removed from Iron Creek..." (actually in 1866.Ed.) "Angry Indians sensed they are being cheated so they burned Fort Whoop Up." (It was burned after it was abandoned, and they were happy to see it rebuilt; Fromhold) Ft. Spitzee built by David Akers and liver-eating Johnson (Johnson was nowhere near Alberta at the time; Fromhold) "A Post near the mouth of the Elbow River is established this year.   They traded at Trail Creek on the Red Deer River near Buffalo Lake the Metis town of four hundred cabins and on occasion even traded at Fort Edmonton.  Post Slide-out at Belly River began operations." (all in 1870; Fromhold) "Two English Metis settlements are at Victoria and Fish Lake with a Wesley Mission under direction of Rev. John McDougall." (Victoria under George McDougall; Whitefish Lake; under Rev. Henry Bird Steinhauer; Fromhold) 1870 "Metis had a number of other western settlements...Jasper... Laboucane" (It is a bit of an exageration to call Jasper or Laboucane a settlement at this time; Fromhold) "The following trading posts are established this year, Fort Ste Anne" (Lac St. Anne Post was never a Fort; Fromhold) "500 to 800 Metis occupy Blackfoot Crossing...and Deer Lake." (Deer Lake = Lac La Biche ? a settlement at Blackfoot Crossing ?; Fromhold) "The Oblate fathers established a mission in the French Metis settlement called Rouleauville (Calgary)" (Oblates did not establish until '74; Roulleau did not arrive in Calgary until 1887; Fromhold) St. Albert; "300 died of small pox this year."; 320 "died...of smallpox" "George Hammond is working out of Fort Whoop-Up, Cyprus Hills" (Whoop-Up is not in the Cypress Hills; Fromhold) George Hammond..."John Wills Sr. and Josephite Grant (married...1842 Sept 6)(No; Fromhold) 1870-73 "Moses Solomon...is trading out of Fort Whoop-Up Cyprus Hills" (He is trading at Cypress Hills, not Whoop-Up by '72; Fromhold) Jul 1; Stromness (Orkney); John Walter "...departed...taking eight weeks to arrive York Factory, Hudson Bay." And then arrived in Edmonton Jul 24 (????!; Fromhold) "J.J. Headly of Fort Bentonite and Nick Sheron...crossed into Canada looking for gold. They found coal..." (Healy, Fort Benton, Sherran; Healy was not with Sherran & they were not looking for gold Sherran was at Ft. Whoop-Up, Healy's trading post; Fromhold) "Donald Smith, married to the Metis daughter of Chief Trader Richard Hardisty" (Married in 1853; Fromhold) 1871 "trying to recover stolen whiskey." (the liquor was not solen, posession was legal, having it in Indian Territory and trading it was not; Fromhold) "Donald A. Smith wrote Richard Charles Hardisty, a Metis...that the trip of Adjutant General James Robertson Ross resulted in the formation of the Mounted Police for western protection." (Ross was not sent until '72; Fromhold) 1872 William Monroe "would serve with the Pallisar Expedition (1872)" (Palliser Expedition in '58, William was along as an infant; 3 Monroes were on the expedition; Fromhold) John Henery Grisham Brady "d-1884" (John Henry Gresham Bray; Staff Sgt; still alive in '90; Fromhold) 1873 "Harrison Young claimed to be the first white marriage in Fort Edmonton, second is William Wood and third Donald Ross, born 1841, according to Ross's recollection." (Young married Libby McDougall, a metis (something the McDougalls never admitted); Wood married Nellie McDougall; Fromhold) 1874 "The Land holders in Edmonton...: Colin Fraser, (a one time postmaster)" (This was Colin Fraser Jr., not Sr. He was not a postmaster, but an independent trader; Fromhold) "Fort Benson, Montana." (No such place; Ft. Benton; Fromhold) "Captain Guion is second in command and Major Steele" (Sergeant- Major Steele, not Major; Fromhold) 1874 Whoop-Up; "The North West Mounted Police took over the fort" (No. They could not afford to buy it and had to build Ft. Macleod instead; Healy was still trading there in 74/75, and it ended up in posession of Dave Akers; Fromhold) 1874 Louis born to Lawrence & Eleanor (Thomas) Garneau (Also given as in '72 1874 "the Garneau Family...their Cree relative's...on their Ellerslie Reserve." (Garneau nowhere states how they were related; Ellerslie Reserve did not exist at this time; Fromhold) 1875 "Four Mile Coulee" (Fourty Mile Coulee ?; Fromhold) "The Sarcee relocated to Calgary reserve following the signing of treaty #7." (Did not sign treaty until '77 & did not relocate until half a decade later; Fromhold) "Fort Sturgeon Creek that is renamed Fort Saskatchewan after the old North West Company Fort." (No such fort among the NWCo; Fromhold) "John George Kootenais Brown...at Waterton Lakes collecting oil seepage from Cameron Creek" (A decade later; Fromhold) 1876 "This was the Nation of the Cree, the Assiniboine and a few Ojibwa, some thirty six hundred Natives in all. Not all the Cree is willing to sign including Big Bear who would rather go to war than submit." (some 9,000 persons; The treaty was not signed by most of the West People; Big Bear was not willing to go to war, and never did. He always counselled against war; Fromhold) 1877 "George Browne...settled at Waterton Lakes..." (In '73; Fromhold) "Indian treaty number 6 is ratified" (Accepted by 2 bands only; Fromhold) 1881 "the..citizens of Edmonton passed a resolution to relocate the Papaschase (Pap-Pa) Cree band in violation of Treaty #6" (Pap-Pa ? Voting is not in violation of any treaty or law; Fromhold) "The LaBoucane Settlement at Duhamel...began by the Salois and LaBoucane..." (founded in '71; Fromhold) "A Stoney Indian showed John Healy of Fort Whoop Up a sample of copper bearing ore from Castle Mountain..." (Whoop-Up long gone by this time. Healy shown the sample many years before; Fromhold) 1882 "Walkers sawmill under the outbank of the Elbow River in Calgary is in operation." (not until after '82; Fromhold) "The NWMP reported...the men at Fort Worth..." (No NWMP post Fort Worth. Fort Walsh ?; Fromhold) 1883 "Canadian Pacific Railway crew drilling for water near Medicine Hat at Alderson, Alberta struck natural gas." (in '85 at Anderson; Fromhold) "William Bruce...and was involved with Riel....who joined Middleton against Riel." (in 1885; Fromhold) 1884 "The Touround Metis settlement near Fish Creek, (Calgary)" (Fish Cr., Saskatchewan, not Alberta; Fromhold) 1884 Aug 23; "John W. Monroe was born"; Nov 1; "John W. Monroe born" 1885 April 20 "Poundmaker is holding council to decide neutrality or war when ambushed by Otter and Strange..." (May 2nd; Most were still asleep; Strange was nowhere near; Fromhold) Jan; "Sergeant Major Sam Steele led a detachment to raid Trail Creek des Metis" (Not 1885; Fromhold) 1887 "Red Crow demanded that the settlers get off the reserve. The Mormon served food to the Blood suggesting the Government decide whether the Mormon is trespassing on Indian land. This simple act forged a bond of friendship with the Blood that has endured throughout the years." (Heap Big B.S. Didn't happen. Card showed the Kainai the survey stakes and sent them on their way. Mormons remove reserve fence posts. Red Crow with Indian Agent & Surveyer returns. Card applogizes and pays for trees cut down on reserve. Sets off an ongoing dispute with Indian Affairs over the boundaries of the reservation; most Bloods believe they have been cheated of some of their promised reserve alnd. Begins ongoing friction with the Mormons and a long history of trespassing onto reserve lands. Col. James Macleod refused to get involved, destroying what little credebility he had left among the Bloods. Fromhold) 1888 Ft. Macleod; Red Crow, Bull Horn, David Mills, Pocklington & Kainai chiefs meet with Inspector Percy R. Neale to have him investigate the legality of the boundary. Col. Macleod asked to attend but refuses (Dempsey 1995:217 {P}) Macleod thereby destroys what little respect the Kainai had left for him. 1890 John Ware "established his own homestead" (In '82; Fromhold) 1891 "Peter Wesley...took a number of followers to the Kootenay Plains..." (in '94; Fromhold) "Gabriel Dumont...is reported to have gone east...to join Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show." (in '86; Fromhold) 1892 Bredin "started the Buffalo Lakes Trading Post" (in '86; Fromhold) 1897 "the Oblate Order had no real experience at agriculture" (The Oblates had already been farming in Alberta for 50 years; Fromhold) 1898 "Collie and Stutfield follow the Indian trail and observe the Columbia Ice fields." (No such thing as "The Indian Trail" to the Columbia icefields. Follow a number of trails and run out of trail north of Saskatchewan River Crossing; Fromhold) 1900 "Writing on the Wall Provincial Park" (No such place as Writing On The Wall Provincial Park; Writing On Stone; Fromhold) 1901 "Francis Exazier (Xavier) Gauthier...and brother Micheal Stanislaus Gauthier...moved to Morinville in 1900"; elsewhere states that in 1903 Michael Stanislaus Gauthier family depart for Edmonton from Cove, OR; Fromhold) 1904 "Content, Alberta alias Trail Creek des Metis is abandoned because the CPR passed to the north with a branch line from Lacombe to Stettler." (In 1911; Fromhold) 1905 "Several Metis from Saint Paul des Metis are arrested and stood trial before Colonel James MacLeod." for burning the residential school. (Macleod died in '94; Fromhold) 1908 "In the fall of this year, French Catholic Squatters Beaudin, Doucet, Langevin, Fontaine, Joly, Pepin, Racicot and others arrived at St. Paul de Metis." (Beaudoin, Doucet, Fontain, Langevin, Pepin were Metis families; Fromhold) 1916 Quebec; Fr. Lacombe died (died at Midnapore, Alberta; buried at St. Albert; Fromhold) "The A.F. Ewing Commission of 1935 decided to be Metis, "a person had to either look like an Indian or be able to establish Indian ancestry. They also had to live the life of an ordinary Indian and non-treaty Indians would be included" as Metis. Malcolm Norris a member of the Commission maintained that, "if a person has a drop of Indian blood in his veins and has not assimilated in the social fabric of our civilization he is a Metis." This assimilation assumption is a European belief that is based on paternalistic logic." (Malcom Norris was a Metis and a founding father of the Metis Association of Alberta; Fromhold) ====================================================================== KRAMER, Pat 1998 NATIVE SITES IN WESTERN CANADA (Kramer) Another book by Altitude Press about Indians by non-Indians who know little about our history. "The Cree are one of the largest tribes in Canada." (Kramer 1998:118 {12}) They are the largest tribe in Canada and controlled more territory than any other tribe in North America; more territory than Alexander The Great (Fromhold 2012 {12}) "[The Cree] have always considered themselves to be the enemies of the Blackfoot..." (Kramer 1998:120 {12}) Actually, they were often allied and more often on friendly terms than not; see the publication THE WESTERN CREE - WARFARE ON THE NORTHWEST PLAINS. (Fromhold 2012 {12}) "Of the many Cree tribes recognized today..." (Kramer 1998:120 {12}) There is only one Cree Tribe, with a number of regional sub-tribes who all consider themselves part of one Cree Nation and of the NEHIYAW-PWAT Nation; the so-called various Cree First Nations are constructs of the white man's administration. (Fromhold 2012 {12}) The Cree were "well-known as intermediaries, they prospered by carrying furs between tribes and fur-trading posts..." (Kramer 1998:120 {12}) This is a myth constucted by Euro-centric historians with little knowlege of Cree history. Early journals do not describe them as intermediaries interested in profit or 'prospering' through such an economy. It is impossible for pedestrian nomads to become prosperous and accumulate material wealth and possessions. See the publication THE WESTERN CREE - THE CANOE CREE and THE WESTERN CREE - ETHNOGRAPHY: INTERTRIBAL TRADE (Fromhold 2012 {12}) The Cree "are the group responsible for seperating the Sarcee from the Beaver by settling between them." (Kramer 1998:120 {12}) The TSUU T'INA actually seperated from the TZA TINNE some 250 years before the Cree moved into the lands that then seperated the two. See the publication ALBERTA HISTORY - WEST CENTRAL ALBERTA (Fromhold 2012 {12}) ====================================================================== WELKER, Glenn H. 2002 ORIGIN OF THE SWEAT LODGE; article on internet This is a rather imperfect version of the POIA legend, the origins of the Sun Dance. In the article, Mr. Welker goes on to say "The Piegan tribe was southernmost at the headwaters of the Missouri River in Montana, a subtribe belonging to the Siksika Indians of North Saskatchewan in Canada. Piegans were of the Algonquian linguistic family, but warlike toward most of their neighbouring tribes, since they had horses for raiding and were supplied with guns and ammunition by their Canadian sources. Piegans also displayed hostility toward explorers and traders. Several smallpox epidemics decimated their population. Now they are gathered on reservations on both sides of the border." The Peigan are not a sub-tribe. The Blackfoot Nation is made up of 3 tribes, the Peigan (North and South Peigan), the KAINAI and the SIKSIKA. The Peigan were the largest and most powerful of the three and probably the ancestral tribe of the Blackfoot. They were not from North Saskatchewan, but from Southern Alberta, and had been continually drifting south, at one time extending as far south as the Arkansas River. While notably hostile to all their neighboring peoples (except the Tsuu T'Ina), the SIKSIKA as often as not could be found at peace with their neighbors and were heavily intermarried with the Mountain Cree in particular. In the United States the Blackfoot had a reputation as a fierce and hostile towards traders and whites. In Canada, there is no recorded instance of them killing Canadian traders (Americans and Brits, but not Canadians). The Blackfoot in Montana are primarily South Peigan, with some KAINAI and a sprinkling of SIKSIKA. The North Peigan, Kainai and Siksika are on reservations in Alberta. ====================================================================== GEAR, W. Michael & Kathleen O'Neal GEAR 1990 PEOPLE OF THE WOLF; Tor Books, New York This opus purports to be a Historical Fiction, no less than "The Majestic Saga of the First Canadians". Set in the late Pleistocene (Ice Age) of northwestern North America, it purports to be the story of the Clovis Culture people, first of the Indians, as they migrated from the subarctic to central North America. Unfortunately, it is woefully inaccurate. To give it it's due, in the 1970's this book would have been on the cutting edge of archaeological thought. In 1971 I proved the existence of and mapped the Foothills Ice-Free Corridor (Fromhold 1971), something that Archaeologists in Alberta had for some years been convinced of, though held to be doubtful by the established powers that be. The belief that a migration south along the corridor was likely was now a plausibility and seemed to be a much easier option than the Coastal route or via the interior plateau. Little was known of the Clovis people at the time. However, by 1990 considerably more was known about the Clovis people and I myself was raising questions about the feasability of migration via the ice-free corridor. Today we know considerably more, and it is now clear that People Of The Wolf is largely inaccurate. Reading it now as Historical Fiction immediately brings on the one thought--CRAP!--which is grossly unfair. The book is best relegated to the Alternate Earth fantasy history classification. As such, it is still a good read. So, back up the claims I have just made about the historical accuracy of the book (and to avoid a libel suit), let's look at some of these inaccuracies. 1. DATING Ideally I could start off by firmly placing this in time before I go on to some of the other issues. However, establishing the date is not all that easy, for reasons that will become apparent below and having to do mainly with correlating deglaciation sequencing and supposed events given in the book. For now, let us just say that the time period is the late Pleistocene, somewhere between 14,000 and 8,000 B.C. 2. HUMAN GEOGRAPHY In the book there are several peoples. From east to west these are THE PEOPLE - A small group of ice-age hunters consisting of several bands or clans (the terms are not used in a precise anthropo- logical meaning in the book) which appear to number about 30 persons per band and likely not totaling more than 300 for the entire people. They roam the southern Mackenzie Valley, having been pushed out of the Yukon by another group, which ocntinues to pressure them. Some of the older people remember the Pacific Ocean and at least one has made a trip there several times. They had on occasion visited the Arctic Ocean. They originated as a breakaway group of The Others. The book equates them with the Clovis people. This is all plausible to a point. Band sizes are consistent with what is known of northern Algonkian history. Size of The People, however, is no more than would have been found in an average Blackfoot band. That there was such a group in the Mackenzie Valley around this time is probable. That they came from the Yukon is unarguable. That they came from the Pacific coast, or made trips there, is highly improbable; given the Pleistocene geography there simply was no direct route between the southern Mackezie valley and the Northwest Coast. The only routes would have been to cross ice-covered mountains to the central Yukon, or north to treck north to the Arctic cost and back south to circumvent these mountains. THE OTHERS - A Sinitic people and the first Indians, occupying the northern Mackenzie Valley and the Yukon River basin west into the Chukotski Peninsula in Siberia. They are a numerous people with four sub-tribes, and are pushing east and south. On their western flank they are being pressured by an even bigger group of people who are also moving east. They are the parent group of The People; the two eventually re-unite. As such, they are first migrants into the lands south of the ice sheets and are equated with the Clovis people. So far so good, but here it begins to break down. The Clovis people were indeed the Ice-Front people. We now know that the Ice-Front people have always been the Algonkian speaking people. Ergo, the Clovis people were Algonkians, which makes The Others Algonkians. The Algonkians were not Sinitic. Genetically the Algonkians are more closely related to the Caucasians than to the Sinio-Mongol people. Phenotypically the Algonkian males show strong Caucasian features and few Sinitic features. The females on the other hand tend to show more Sinitic features than Caucasian features. Most Algonkian females fall into one of four pehotypes. Like many Indian groups there appears to have been a Founder Effect in action. This implies a small group of people that were the origins of the group. It also implies that Algonkian males were of basic Caucasian stock and heavily and at one time mainly married Sinitic women. Algonkian tradition has it that the Algonkians were the First People--the first Indians in the Americas. Specifically, the Delaware tribe is considered as the Grandfather People, oldest of the Algonkian peoples, while the Cree language is considered the grandfather of the Algonkian (and hence most other Indian) languages. GLACIER PEOPLE - A large Caucasian tribe in eastern Siberia, pressing east against the Others. In turn they were being pressed from the west by an even larger Mongol tribal group. Approaching the Bering landbridge the Glacier People were simultaneously expanding north and south along the coast. As noted above, the Others were an Algonkian people of apparent Caucasian origin. Indications are that the Mongol peoples were a late development. Early historic documentation by the Chinese suggest that the barbarian nomads of north and central Asia (the Hsiung-Nu, Yueh-Chi, Jwen Jwen, White Huns and Kara Kitai) were Caucasian in origin. The Ghuzz and Turks were a people of mixed Caucasion and Sinitic origin. In other words, historically central Asia seems to have been Caucasian, the Mongols being a later people. MONGOLS - As noted above, a Mongol horde was posited as pushing the Glacier People from the west. However, historically the Mongol peoples were a late deveopment. As late as 1200 A.D. one Mongol tribe was noted as having blond hair and blue eyes. At the time the only possibly truly mongol peoples were the Jurchen from Manchuria and, possibly, peoples to the north and south. In other words, the Mongol people originated in eastern Asia at a very late date and pushed west into historic Caucasian lands. They were not the hypothetical people pushing the Glacier People on their western flank. 3. LINGUISTICS As noted above, Algonkian Cree language purports to be the first Indian language in the Americas, and ancestral to most Indian (excepting Athabaskan and Inuit) languages. Anthropology and Linguistics can not refute this claim but to date can neither confirm the claim. However, it is clear that Cree (and thereby Algonkian as a whole) shows marked similarities and parallels to Indo-European and virtually no similarities to Sinitic and Mongol languages. Hence the Cody people--and therefore the Others--spoke ancestral Algonkian (or, if you prefer, Pre-Algonkian or Proto-Algonkian). Gear's linguistic conventions used in the book for names, place- names, animals and mystic concepts do not conform to Algonkian usage. In the book, terms used tend to be cutsey-flowery 2-3 word combinations. Essentially, these are representative of New Age concepts of Indian names. In actuality, Algonkian 'words' tend to be entire thoughts/ phrases including integrated action and gender modifiers. A name like ICE FIRE could not exist in Algonkian. It is an incomplete statement. Names, in fact, tend to be more in the nature of prosaic nicknames (eg. Ka Michet O Kehew-wak, "He has many important eagle feathers"). 4. MYSTICISM As noted above, the names used do not conform to Algonkian usage and terms. For that matter, the concepts involved here are not Algonkian. Rather, they appear to be an outgrowth of some New Age/Carlos Castenada conception of what Indian mysticism should be about. Enough said. 5. TECHNICAL DETAILS There are a number of technical mistakes. These include a. Clovis developed in the Mackenzie Valley and migrated south. No. There is no evidence for Clovis, pre-Clovis or fluted points in the Mackenzie Valley--or anywhere in the subarctic. Clovis, in fact, is found only south of the Laurentide Ice Front. b. Obisidian for points came from Yukon. No. Obisidian has not been found in the Yukon. Nearest Obsidian souce in the British Columbia interior. c. Chert deposit found near Heron Camp better than obsidian. No. The Mackenzie basin lies in the Rocky Mountain geosyncline; there are only sedimentary rocks, no metamorphic or ingneous rock deposits. The only possible source for such materials would be found in river cobbles. d. Clovis people used "darts". No. Technically, 'darts' are short (under 2') projectiles, usually weighted for greater effect. Gear means 'javelins', as in atlatls. (Technically, a standard Javelin is a short, light spear, usually feathered). There is no evidence that Atlatls were used by Clovis people or any Paleolithic peoples. Clovis projectiles are generally thought to have been spears, though theoretically Javelins might have existed and evidence for Atlatls have just not yet been found (or evidence for guns, for that matter). However, the dimensions of the Clovis (and fluted points in general) are not deemed suitable for Atlatl projectiles. The physics simply are wrong. Due to the width of fluted points they generally require a shaft at least 1 1/4" in diameter. Add to this the sinew binding necessary to insure stability because the point base is wider than the shaft, and you have a head on the spear some 1.5x2" thick or more, making such a Javelin unstable and limiting it's distance. e. Dugout canoes were to be found among the Others, Glacier People and Coastal people. There is no evidence anywhere in the world for any kind of boat having been used or known at this time period. The first such evidence is still some thousands of years in the future. On the other hand, this does not necessarily mean that they did not have boats. It is well known that in the early historic period such paleolithic peoples as existed were well aware of, and used, quite sophisticated boats (ocean-going dugouts, bark canoes, kayaks, umiaks, reed boats and rafts, oceangoing sailing rafts). f. Clovis people used round shelters some 20' across with a base wall of rock, covered with hide supported by mammoth heads and bones. Yes and No. The earliest evidence for shelters/tents in the Americas comes from a Clovis site in southern Alberta dated around 7,500 B.C. There is no evidence for any kind of bone ribbing, or any kind of ribbing. The shelters were round, lacking any base rock wall, and only some 8' in diameter. g. Moosehide makes poor lodge covers. Moosehide is the hide of choice throughout the entire subarctic. The only other hide that was more in demand was buffalo hide, and even thicker and more durable hide. 6. GLACIAL GEOGRAPHY: LATE PLEISTOCENE By all description, the location of the events is in the Mackenzie River valley. This is the "Big River", running roughly North-South (actually, NNW). It is bounded on the east by the Big Ice (Laurentide Ice Front) and on the west by craggy mountains (Mackenzie Mountains). According to the book, the head of this valley, near Heron's Camp, is in rising craggy rocky country. There is no such place. The Mackenzie Valley is essentially a level plain between uplands. Around 8,600 B.C. the southern portion of the valley extended roughly to the northern flanks of the Cameron/Bistcho Hills, east to the base of the Caribou Mountains. These are hilly upland plateaus--not craggy rocky mountains. South of these uplands lay a massive glacial lake filling the basins of the Liard River and Fort Vermilion Lowlands. At it's maximum --roughly at this time--it was 100 miles wide and stretched east in a series of lakes (including Lake Agassiz) and narrows into Minnesota. At it's smallest, around 8,400 B.C. it was the size of Lake Superior. At this time it drained to the southeast. Around 8,600 B.C. this ice wall was broached, this glacial lake beginning to drain northwards via the Hay River gap between the Cameron Hills and the Caribou Mountains. Around 8,400 B.C. drainage opened via the Liard River and the Slave River, draining out the lake but leaving the basin filled with swamps, muskegs, bogs and mud flats. These swamps fill most of the basin to this day. With every opening of a new drain massive quantities of water swept into the Mackenzie Basin. Like pulling the plug in a bathtub. Undoubtedly these massive floods scoured the Mackenzie basin all the way to the Arctic. 7. GLACIAL SEQUENCING As noted, the final stages of deglaciaton of the Ice Free Corridor occurred around 8,500 B.C. At this point an ice wall existed from the Mackenzie Mountains across the Bistcho Hills, Cameron Hills and Caribou Mountains seperating the Mackenzie Basin from the Peace River Basin. Around 8,500 B.C. this wall was breached by the Hay River Drainage Channel, the draining from Glacial Lake Tyrell now shifting into the Mackenzie Basin. The Liard Basin and upper Mackenzie/Great Slave Lake at this time were still blocked and ice-covered. Around 8,400 B.C. a drainage channel opened just west of the current Slave River, and shortly thereafter the Slave River and Liard River breached the ice wall, opening the Liard River and upper Mackenzie basins. In the book The People were located at Heron's camp, 3 days north of the ice front. We now face a sequential conundrum. Heron's camp this would have had to have been on the northern flanks of the Bistcho Hills. However, to have been there would have required that the Liard basin and upper Mackenzie were open. The book, however, does not mention the upper Mackenzie. Instead, it notes that east of Heron's Camp was the Continental ice sheet, presumably unbroken, and the Mackenzie valley was blocked by an ice wall from the mountains in the west (Mackenzie Mountains) to mountains in the east. However, there are no mountains to the east, only the Etezi Plateau uplands, merely an uplands similar to that of the Bistcho Hills and Cameron Hills. Passing through an ice tunnel along the Big (Mackenzie) River brought them out onto a grassy plains, where a big river comes in from the west. This could only be the Liard River. This would have required passing the Mackenzie River, which here comes from the east. However, there is no mention of passing such a river. The book states that at the southern terminus of the tunnel there were mountains to the west and icefields to the east. The nearest mountains here would be some 60 miles to the west, beyond the Fort Nelson lowlands and river. To have the Liard River open would place the date at around 8,400 A.D. However, this would mean that the entire Ice Free Corridor, Liard basin and upper Mackenzie basin were now open and ice free. To have the lands south of here covered with grass and shrubbery would require some extra years. To get an approximation of this geography we would have to assume that there was a residual ice wall across the Mackenzie Valley in the Ft. Simpson area and south to the Bistcho Hills, and that the Mackenzie flowed under the ice and joined the Liard inside the tunnel. This would place Heron's Camp approximately at Camsel Bend on the Mackenzie. At this place Mount Camsell also flanks the west side of the valley, which could pottentially be taken to be the uplands west of Heron's Camp. This still leaves us with the conundrum that south of the Liard-Mackenzie junction the land is not a broad plain into the distance, but again rises to the Bistcho and Cameron Hills uplands. Much of the Liard and Mackenzie lowlands here would still have been covered in swamp (as it is today). Even the flanks of these hills are largely swamp and muskeg even today. The only way to bypass these swamps would be to bypass them far to the west, along the flanks of the Rocky Mountains, or to cross some 200 miles of frozen swamps and lakebed in winter. 8. CONCLUSIONS Even by conservative estimation archaeologists state that by 9,500 B.C. the Clovis people were in southern Alberta and hunting along the southern ice front. Other peoples were already established by this time on the lower Fraser River. By 8,500 B.C. the Clovis Culture was already being replaced along this ice front. Clearly the Clovis people did not come south along the ice-free corridor in 8,600 B.C. They did not originate in the north. Nor is it possible that their predecessors could have come south along an Ice-Free Corridor, as this did not exist or would have been impassable prior to 8,500 B.C. The Clovis at best moved in from the west or, possibly, from the south. ====================================================================== FROMHOLD, J. 1972 PREHISTORIC CULTURAL DISTRIBUTION AND DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFTS IN WESTERN SOUTH ALBERTA This study was done during the golden days of Archaology in Alberta, and was one of the first attempts in this province to develop cultural and historical data from the results of archaeological work. The results are still valid, hence we have decided to post excerpts from the study. The study is based on analysis of results found in the large-area field surveys that were being done in this province since then, which lent themselves well towards development of theory of human and cultural process. These surveys ranged in size from 50 to 2,500 square miles. Regretably such sueveys ended at about this time. Thanks to the genios of Jack Brink and the Archaeological Survey of Alberta, area surveys and research in cultural theory came to an end, as the Archaelogical Survey of Alberta switched from funding research to downloading it to Corporate responsibility in the form of Salvage Archaeology. While Salvage Archaeology was certainly a godsend for the sudden blossoming of a Consulting industry, it was a virtual deathknell to pure research. Instead of promoting thought in the field of cultural theory, it tended to develop proficiency as a technician. By it's very nature Salvage archaeology tends be restricted in scope, locationally limited, and tending towards developing proficiency in excavation technique and particularism. Effectively, it moves archaology from being a Behavioral Science to being an Earth Science. Which, after all, has always been the orientation of the Plains Archaeology at the University of Calgary. Effectively this approach to archaeology results in site-specific data which is rarely transferable to models of regional history and cultural process. At the present state of archaology in this province, it would take at least another 10 years to return to a stage where it was in terms of theoretical archaeology. Excepting more recent studies of the Ice-Front people in Alberta and Saskatchewan by the author, this was the last of the studies of general human and cultural history in Alberta. This study is relevant to southwestern Alberta only, and makes no pretense at being of broader import, though the technique is appliccable anywhere. The restricting principle here is the necessity of having available large-area surveys for particular regions on which the basic extrapolations can be made. These conditiions are not often met with. Nor does it claim to be 100% accurate. The only way that such accuracy could potentially be achieved is by covering 100% of an area, which is largely impractical. This leaves us with the issue of sampeling. According to Brink and the ASA, that requires something like digging 160 random pits per quarter section, or whatever it has been replaced with by now. Something that is equally impractical and perhaps even more rediculous, and then still trying to second-guess the field archaeologists from their office. Lacking some systematic sampling method, the study had to rely on the existing large-area surveys in the region, the sampeling of which is in theory 100% of the accessable area,and extrapolating from there. Results, therefore, are not necessarily 'hard' statistics, but serve as 'rule of thumb' statistics which can be refined by further research and development. We have not included the detailed methodology involved, the above overview being sufficient. The significant information for our purpose are the results, as these add significant information to our understading of the human prehistory of this province. Copyright 1972 J. Fromhold All Rights Reserved. No part of this manuscript may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the author. TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE i ABSTRACT ii TABLE OF CONTENTS iii LIST OF TABLES iv LIST OF CHARTS v LIST OF MAPS vi INTRODUCTION 1 THEORETICAL ORIENTATION 2 Mean 6 Mode 6 Median 7 Range 7 Quartile 7 Averages 8 OBSERVATIONS 9 Hypothesis 1 9 Hypothesis 2 10 Hypothesis 3 11 Hypothesis 4 12 Frequency Growth 14 CONCLUSIONS 15 TABLES 17 CHARTS 21 MAPS 31 APPENDIX 34 REFERENCES CITED 39 LIST OF TABLES I Frequency of Projectile Points in Test Areas 18 II Projectile Points Recovered per Square Mile 19 III Statistical Values for Projectile Point Distribution in Alberta, Based on 9 Test Areas 20 LIST OF CHARTS I Comparative Frequencies of Projectile Points 22 II Frequency of Distribution of Porjectile Points 24 III Climatic Conditions and Spatial Distribution of Projectile Points Through Time 27 IV Projectile Point Frequencies per Thousand Year Intervals 29 LIST OF MAPS I Distribution of the Test Areas in Southern Alberta 32 INTRODUCTION Archaeology in southern Alberta has in recent years enjoyed a considerable upswing in activity, primarily in the field of Archaeological surveys. In the opinion of the author, it is felt that there has now been sufficient work done in the field for us to formulate larger hypotheses based on this field research. The hypotheses proposed in this paper as follows: Hypotheses One: Prime areas of cultural activity can be determined for the area in question on the basis of simple statistical analysis. Hypotheses Two: Shifts in the prime areas oc cultural activity in time and space can be determined. Hypotheses Three: Inferences concerning Ecozone exploitation and Territoriality can be drawn from analysis of the available data. Hypotheses Four: Inferences can be drawn on cltural interactions. ====================================================================== JOSEPH, Frank 1997 SACRED SITES OF THE WEST, A Guide to Mystical Centers; Hancock House, Surrey, B.C; This is such a piece of sh** that I hate to even begin to deal with it. However, having called it a piece of sh**, I had better back up the allegation to avoid a lawsuit. I don't know what planet or reality Frank Joseph comes from, but it is not this one. Wherever he is from, it seems to be populated by burned-out new-age tripped-out hippies who long ago seem to have lost the capacity for rational thought (take a look at the glossary on page 15 for a start). Although claims are made that at least some of this informaiton comes straight from the Indians, I seriously doubt that he - or the other authors involved - ever talked to an Indian familiar with the sites they discuss. If they did, then the local was really laying it on for a good laugh on these rubes. In most cases that they claim are sacred Native sites, they somehow connect them as having been founded or created by aliens, Atlateans or god-knows who. Anyone but Native - which is part of the old stereotypical belief (still held by some academics) that the Indians were not developed enough, civilized enough, or intelligent enough to have come up with their own cultural developments). Since I am personally familiar with some of these locations, because I lived in the area and, in some cases, they are part of the tradition of the Mountain Cree or affiliated people, I will stick with those sites, knowing them best. I would suspect, though, that what I say about these would be representative of the remainder. That is not to say that we don't have our mystic places. We do, and we revere them in our own way - which has nothing to do with new- age, Atlantis, stimulants, or a search for power, or Euro-mysicism. Nor do we go out of our way to keep them secret. Indeed, we take pleasure in sharing them with those willing to learn. As one Sun- Dance leader once said, "After all, the Great Spirit is for every- one." For that matter, if Joseph and others want to import their Druidism, New-Age, Heliocentrism, Wiccaism or worship of Kali, that's their business. The Great Spirit gives everyone the choice to worship in their way, though in our tradition, worship is always to be non- destructive, non-intrusive to others and tolerant. Worship as you please, with our blessings - but don't try to twist our beliefs to feed your fantacies. DENALI "Though not commonly known, this mountain is considered to be a major global power point. In the tradition of the Great White Brotherhood, it acts as a reception, anchoring and transmittal center of cosmic energies related to spiritual evolution on earth." (p.23) Eh, what? Commonly known to who? Not our people. Denali is big, it is impressive, it has a spirit (which generally minds it's own business) and is respected and held in high regard. Ergo, it has sacred implications, but we know nothing of this power triping - such would be contrary to our whole belief system. And who are these brotherhood? One of these jail organizations? Anything like the Native Brotherhood, who work within the jails to improve Native life? THE LOST CITY OF THE ARCTIC Ipiutak, an ancient arctic village site, known in archaeological terms as the Ipiutak Culture. Linked in the book to mythical Lemuria and Hyperboria. It is not Maya. It is not 10,000 years old and certainly was not "built before the last glaciation". Ipiutak, although certainly unusual, is significantly different from early Inuit culture. Culturally it falls between the Old Bering Sea and the Birnirk cultures on the way to the development of the Thule culture, and dates to between 300 BC and 500 AD. As an archaeologist, I find it not nearly as intriguing as Von Daniken's propositions. Certainly to Native people it has no outstanding mystical value. While Joseph "may infer...that the ancient residents of Ipiutak were practicioners of a mystery cult, whose rituals emphasized the eternal conquest of the soul...yadda yadda ...a spirtual center as spiritually resonant as it is profoundly ancient." (p.28), neither archaeologists nor Native people infer that. WRITING ON STONE Writing on Stone is cool, as are a good number of pictograph sites that exist in Alberta, but there is no evidence - written, oral, traditional or archaeological, that the Sheshone (sic) used the area for generations as a cemetery. "large shields were never used by the Sheshone, nor any known tribal people in Alberta..." (p.33), except of course the Atsina, Blackfoot, Cree, Crow, Nakoda and Tsuu T'Inna, as was common in pre-horse days. No need to call up European Bronze- age warriors to explain the pictographs or Chinese visitors from 4,200 years ago. "it was here...that the otherworld of the spirit created a bridge into our material plane..." Naw. In our belief that link (much broader than a bridge) exists everywhere and in all of us. Like I said, Writing on Stone is cool. We visit at many of these sites and often camp there, meditate, pray and fast. No, we don't know who made the pictographs; all traditions say that it was made by the Kayas Nehiyaw, "Indians of long ago." They are sacred to us as spiritual places and places to worship at. In the past occasionally one would find a new addition to the pictographs. Today it is most often in the form of GEORGE WAS HERE 1998, and the true pictographs are being destroyed by vandalism. One site is being used by rock climbers to climb on and hammer in pitons. LAC ST. ANNE His story about the origins of the Lac St. Anne pilgrimage, is interesting, but generally has no place in the history of the place. It is in keeping with the Catholic traditions of miracles. Lac St. Anne was founded in 1843, and had not been venerated by generations of Indians before this for the healing property of it's water. It was named Manito Sakahikan "Spirit Lake" for quite other reasons - the Missionaries calling it "Devil's Lake." No, we did not believe that Earth Mother had set it aside especially to nurture her children. Lac St. Anne was founded as a mission because it was far enough from the plains to be safe from Blackfoot raids, close enough to travel to the plains to hunt, had fish to feed the mission, and had some apparent agricultural potential. The pilgrimage was founded about half a century later by Fr. Lacombe as a counter to the Sun Dance, and to draw people away from the Sun Dance and traditional religion. It is largely attended by the Cree, although some small representation can also be found form other tribes (usually from families with Cree kinship). Each kin-group more-or less has a certain camping area - ours is near the mouth of the creek. It is the biggest social event in the Cree calendar, and of late has become a bit of a fair, with booths and concessions. It now draws more attendance than any Sun Dance - although some Pow Wows are just as big. Mystical? Maybe. At least to some of the little old ladies. HIDDEN LAKE CHABA IMNE does not mean "Hidden Lake". It is Nakoda for "Beaver Lake". Named after the Job Beaver family, who first brought the lake to the attention of the white men. (Actually, it had long since been known to the traders at Jasper, but who listens to Indian and traders?) Joseph's "investigators" who "believe" that the name Chaba Imne was originally applied to Medicine Lake because of it's "strange behavior" are out to lunch. Chaba Imne means Chaba Imne, not Medicine Lake or Hidden Lake. Medicine Lake was named Wakan Imne in Nakoda and Manito Sakahikan in Cree. It lies in the lands of the Asini Wachi Wininiwak - the Mountain Cree. There are no oral traditions in our people that "shamans, the spiritual leaders of the community often made pilgrimages... to partake of the Manitou" to the lake, and "returned among their people to cure them of of physical and mental ills..." (p.37) and that these were for the healing of the soul and the spirit. Medicine Lake is a fascinating natural phenomenon. It has a massive inflow, in the form of the Maligne River, but no outflow. It drains underground, discharging through various openings in Maligne Canyon, some 10 miles down valley. This, indeed, was big medicine, or mystical, to our people, and links into the entire mystery of the little people. Yes, our family has camped there at all different seasons. Although individuals might go off to meditate and fast at the lake, it has no reputation as a maker or breaker of shamans, or as an energy pack for them. It was a lake. Period. Furthermore, the particular branch of the Mountain Cree who resided in this area have never had a reputation for having powerful medicine men. In fact, they have never had a record of having any medicine men. They were metis hunters and trappers, mostly devout Catholic. For that matter, the concept of a Shaman did not exist among the Mountain Cree and, although there were certainly Spiritual People, there were no Shamans among our people. ATLANTIS IN CANADA When Atlantis sank, survivors dispersed all over, including Peterborough (ONT), but the one site specifically linked with Atlantis is Atlin Lake (YK). Native American traditions associate Atlin Lake with Atantis (p.40). The name alone proves the fact. Sorry, never heard of such a Native American tradition. Nor have the Gwichin peoples of Atlin Lake specifically and the Yukon in general. The similarity between the names Atlantis and Atlin are a somewhat less closely reltated than that between Sioux and Suit. MEDICINE WHEELS "Folk traditions...assert that these structures were laid out by a pre-Indian people of sun-worshipers..." It was built by a world-wide civilization before the Great Flood. Indian myths identify pre-Indian sun-worshipers as the builders. Medicine Wheels are located in the Canadian Rockies. Maybe Joseph's new-age folk traditions assert that they were built by pre-Indian sun-worshipers. Ours don't. Most Native elders and spiritual people will tell you that, like the pictographs, they were made by the Long Ago Indians. Not pre-Indians. The Majorville medicine wheel is dated at 4,500 years old. That is not pre-Indian. The Indians have been here at least 10,000 years. And there has not been a worldwide flood in the pat 4,500 years. (Archaeologists have discerned that there were 4 racial types that migrated into the Americas: the Otomid, the Lenapid, the Deneid and the Inuit. The Otomid are the oldest - possibly over 60,000 years ago, and may have been a Caucasian peoples; the Lenapid, who represent most Native Americans, who arrived over 10,000 years ago; and the Deneid and Inuit, who arrived within the past 4,000 years.) Many Native Americans maintain that there were no migrations, that they are indiginous. The Algonkian (Lenapid) peoples maintain that the Lene-Lenape (Delaware) peoples are the true stem of the Indians, and all Indians are descended from them; the Cree, a Lenapid people, maintain that their language is the grandfather languages of all Indian languages. In short, medicine wheels were made by Indians. There is no Native sun-worshiping tradition on the plains, where the Medicine Wheels are found. None of these tribal peoples have a tradition of there ever having been a sun- worshiping tradition. Among the Blackfoot the last medicine person to have the rights to hold a medicine wheel ceremony died in the late 1950's. The rights were passed on to one other person, who today has the rights, given in a direct linear tradition since prehistoric times (no, it isn't Sun Bear). There are no medicine wheels in the Canadian Rockies, and the Majorville wheel shown on the map on page 30 is 1000 miles too far north. As for the mystical significance, many Native spiritual leaders can give you their interpretation, and it is not too far different than some of that speculated by Joseph. But only one person knows for sure. NAHANNI "almost the entire Yukon is a sacred site...one of the most powerful on earth." Gee, I'm glad you told us. We know that the entire earth is sacred, and that there are spiritual places everywhere, but it took a white man to enlighten us about the mystical power of the Yukon. We never even realized it. Yes, the Aurora Borealis, the Northern Lights, are a mystical power. They are one of the few mystical powers that the Native people look on with dread. They are not friendly. As for the Nahanni River, the "Headless Valley". The Nahanni are "a half-spectral" native tribe, "spirit-beings who can manifest themselves as powerful flesh-and-blood men in order to guard a lush, tropical valley of balmy breezes hidden somewhere in the Mackenzies. This Shangri-La of the North is inhabited by lovely maidens and lissome boys trapped by the subarctic environment outside. They offer themselves and gold nuggets... to anyone able to get past the guards...." Wow! Fact: The Nahanni were a band of the Kaska Indians who hunted and trapped on the river. In fall they boated down the river and in spring made their way back to the headwaters. They were well-known to the early fur traders and to the later trappers and adventurers such as R.M. Patterson Leo Belaire and Albert Faille (the last two of whom were known by me personal- ly). Some settled at Nahanni Butte. The band was absorbed by other Kaska and Etchareo Tine bands. Their descendants are still around, including descendants of the McLeods. Yes, the Nahanni Hot Springs do keep open a lush oasis for most of the winter, but hardly tropical; they don't freeze over in winter. Several families were known to have lived there for years, and I hear that they did indeed have lovely daughters. Their descendants are still around too, and they still have lovely daughters. As for offering themselves and gold nuggets, that's not in their family histories, and neither Patterson, Belaire or Faille ever told, if they knew. Indeed, the Nahanni has had its share of fatalities, usually among those who searched for gold. One of the last was a party that Leo and I were to have flown in with but missed. The plane went down with no survivors. Whether it has had any more deaths than anyplace else is open to debate. In an area of the Canadian Rockies frequented by our family, there are some two to three deaths a year by people falling off cliffs, into waterfalls, getting lost, falling off glaciers, icefalls and snowfields, trapped in avalances, having boulders or ice chunks fall on them, being attacked by grizzly bears or being killed in hunting accidents (not to mention automobile or ATV accidents). To my knowlege the Nahanni - though considerably more rugged and dangerous - has fewer fatalities. In one busy month alone, our family participated in 3 mountain-rescue operations, one of which involved rapelling into a 200' gorge to rescue a tourist stranded between two 100' waterfalls. ======================================================================= POHORECKY, Zenon 1976 SASKATCHEWAN INDIAN HERITAGE: The First 200 Centuries; University of Saskatoon, Saskatoon; Overall, a decent job of trying to compress a mass of information into a small space. Suffers somewhat from having a bit of a geocentric view and not a broad enough regional approach. This is especially true of the maps of tribal distribions and migrations. His dates given for archaeological cultures is debateable, but that is more of an academic debate than a mistake; furthermore, data was fairly unknown at the date of publication, and has been somewhat advanced since. Overall his archaeological information is fairly up-to-date, given the almost ultra-conservative attitudes of archaeologists about the antiquity of man in the Americas at the time. Pohorecky (1976:48) states that the Atsina called themselves ATSINA, meaning "People". They did not; It does not. (Ed.) Saxsii (BLK: "Hard Language")(Pohorecky 1976:42)(No. source ? Saxii a corruption of the Cree Saskiwak of unknown meaning; Fromhold) Saxsiiwak (BLK: "Hard/Strong/Mighty People")(Pohorecky 1976:42) (No. source ? Saxiiwak is a form of the Cree word Sasiwak; Fromhold) "Among the Blackfoot...a person's name always reflected the character of the person who possessed it." (Pohorecky 1976:46); rarely. Mostly reflected an event or were carried on from a previous prominent relative; Fromhold) "...names...were rarely passed onto a son..." (Pohorecky 1976:46) (actually very frequently, such as 5 generations of Bull Back Fat; Fromhold) "Blackfoot...wisely employed tactics which might keep casualties to a minimum" (Pohorecky 1976:47)(actually, were usually throught by other tribes to be exceptionally reckless; Fromhold) "Blackfoot heaven was west" (Pohorecky 1976:48)('Heaven', the hereafter, was located in the Great Sand Hills, on the eastern borders of their range; Fromhold) The Atsina were always friendly with the Cree and Saulteaux (Pohorecky 1976:48)(NEVER!!! in pre-reservation times; Fromhold) "The Gros Ventre had a singular lack of success in military engagements. It was due in part to their independence and mobility; they were unwilling to pledge lasting allegiance. It was their way to stand alone, fight alone, and fall alone." (Pohorecky 1976:48) (What B.S.!!! 1813-67 firmly allied with the Blackfoot and NEVER fought alone, except when caught by enemies; 1867-69 firmly allied with the Crow and NEVER fought alone; 1874 post; allied with and absorbed by the Upper Nakoda. They were always firm allies in battle and did not remain aloof, as did the Sarsi and Siksika. Their main problem was they were the most hostile people on the NW plains and hostile to the traders, hence received fewer guns; Fromhold) 40,000 B.P; Paleo-Indians move into North America into the Saskatchewan area via Bering Strait & ice-free corridor down Mackenzie Valley past Lake Athabasca to Saskatchewan (Pohorecky 1976:8) (No Indication of an Ice-Free corridor past L. Athabasca to Saskatchewan; Fromhold) 6,000-2,000 B.C; Boreal Archaic Culture may repesent an intrusive ancestral Algonkian people moving into North America from the forest areas of Asia (Pohorecky 1970:17); Directly non-stop? How long a process ? Evidence of this ? Not likely! At the time the Ice-Free corridor was still blocked by Glacial Lake Tza and Tyrell, and the Boreal Archaic is an Eastern Woodlands/Algonkian manifestation; Fromhold) 1600-1700 Sask; Cree & Assiniboine sweep west into central Saskatchewan (Pohorecky 1976:5) (The Cree, at least, by this time were certainly already in central Saskatchewan. Ed. No indication that Beaver, Slave or Sarcee EVER occupied these areas. Note however that Pohorecky tends to call the Etheneldeli (Caribou Eater Chipewyan) Beaver (i.e. Tza Tinne) for some unknown reason; Fromhold) 1682 York Factory built by HBC (Pohorecky 1976:22)(built in '70; rebuilt this year. Ed) 1690 York Factory; Henry Kelsey runs away (Pohorecky 1976:22) (the claim that Kelsey ran away, made by opponents of the HBC, has been show to be falatious; Fromhold) 1690 Henry Kelsey receives the name "Little Giant" MISO-PASHISH (Pohorecky 1976:22; MISTAW AWASIS (MISTAWSIS) "Big Child/Infant/ Baby"; Fromhold) 1700 map; No indications that the Etchareo Tine (Slave) or Beaver occupied those areas shown. Ed. 1750 pre. Sarsi make clay pots (Pohorecky 1976:42)(No such evidence ; Fromhold) 1750 c. Meadow Lake; Sarsi leave their homeland and join the Blackfoot (Pohorecky 1976:42)(No evidence of either; Fromhold) 1750 Sarsi have a culture like the Chipewyans, not Blackfoot (Pohorecky 1976:42)(But Cocking states it is like that of the Cree; they were always more similar to the Cree fron this time on; Fromhold) 1750 post; Blackfoot sweep across the prairies as far east as Manitoba, where they colliede with the Cree, Assiniboine and Saulteaux (Pohorecky 1976:42-43)(No evidence of such; Fromhold) 1754 Aug 13; "We are now entered Muskoty [Buffalo] plains" (Pohorecky 1976:23)(MASKOTEW, "Prairie", not buffalo; Fromhold) 1762-63 Matthew Cocking in Saskatchewan (Pohorecky 1976:19) (Actually in '72-'73; Fromhold) 1767-1867 "the Prairies of Saskatchewan were filled with wars... between the Plains Cree and the Blackfoot. The wars made the South Saskatchewan River a vast battlefield, a no-man's land, a front line and a boundary." (Pohorecky 1976:20) what BS 1774 Cumberland Ho. built by the HBC to compete with Nor'Westers (Pohorecky 1976:19)(North West Co. not formed for another decade. ; Fromhold) 1775 Oct; Cumberland House (CAN); manned by 'Highlanders' from the Orkneys (Pohorecky 1976:26); (Orkneymen, not highlanders. There are no highlands in the Orkneys; Fromhold) 1864 Poundmaker defeats Sarcee chief Cut Knife (Pohorecky 1976:20) (One of the many varied stories of the battle with Cut Knife. It was not Poundmaker. He was not a Chief until after 1876; Fromhold) 1866 Battle at Ghost Coulee is "The last and most decisive battle in Ghost Coulee, south of the village of Riverhurst, along the South Saskatchewan River. Hundreds of Blackfoot were trapped and killed in the encounter. Shortly after this, the Plains Cree and Black- foot made peace by exchanging young men as tokens of mutual trust." (Pohorecky 1976:20). (Actually, it started a series of revenge wars culminating in the biggest - and last - battle in 1870; Fromhold) 1870 Manitoba; Riel's Provisional Government sets the terms of the Manitoba Act, which brought Rupert's Land into Canada (Pohorecky 1976:20); Riel had nothing to do with bringing Ruper's Land into Canada; Fromhold) n/d Mistawasis "head chief of the northern Plains Cree" (Pohorecky 1976:20)(Head Chief of the Waskahikan Wininiwak only; Fromhold) ======================================================================= BELLIVEAU, Anne 1999 SMALL MOMENTS IN TIME, The Story of Alberta's Big West Country; Detselig Enterprises, Calgary; One of the better treatments of the Indian history of the west (specifically the central foothills of Alberta). Suffers from some erroneous views and interpretation of historical statements which have been accepted uncritically from existing views of history according to the authorities Don & Barney, who know their information is dated. Belliveau (1999:28 {01}) claims that Nakoda historical information is limited and therefore their movements are difficult to track. This is incorrect, and the movements of the Chiniki and Bearspaw's bands are well documented and known in some detail, and traceable on a month-by-month basis, if not actually day-by-day (see the Heritage Consulting files). The Goodstoney/Wesley, Beaver, Boggy Hall, Paul, Chipoostikwan & Maskwa Kwatik bands are less - but reasonably - well known. Belliveau (1999:28 {01}) gives the story that the Chiniki, Bearspaw and Wesley Bands broke away from their parent groups in the Dakotas and migrated to the foothills, and that the Chiniki and Bearspaw's bands were originally one. In fact, Chiniki's group are an indiginous development of the Chan Tonga Nakoda, and largely of Nakoda/Metis & Cree/Metis origins (original band members are known by name). Bearspaw's Band are a fragment of the Wato Pahanda Tonwan Nakoda from the Upper Missouri who moved west in 1839 (original band member's names are known). The two bands were culturally different, have different cultural histories, and initially did not mix much, the Chiniki band mixing more with the Cree and maintaining and metis. The Wesley Band did not migrate from the Dakotas, but are part of the Waziah Winchasta, and have a common origin with the Paul and Alexis Band in the Swampy Ground Nakoda, the founding father on the Kootenay Plains being a Metis by the name of Abraham White Beard in 1821. Belliveau states that the Stoney (meaning the above three bands) did not allie themselves with other tribes, but this is again incorrect. They were heavily intermarried and mixed with the Cree (custom also demanded that a man live with his wife's people for a minimum of 4 years) and to a lesser extent with the Kutenai. Chiniki was half-Cree; Chiniki, Bearspaw and most others had Cree wives; Bearspaw's sister was married into the Cree, etc., etc.,; as noted above, they were members of the Mountain People Division of the Nehiyapwat (Cree/Nakoda) Confederacy, joined in common Sun Dances with the other bands of this division, and fell under the Head Chieftainship of Cree chiefs Pesew and Bobtail (as did all Cree, Nakoda and Soto bands west of the Beaver Hills). In addition, along with the Mountain Cree, the Bearspaw & Chiniki Bands annually joined the Kutenai at the Kootenay Plains Rendezvous and in their summer buffalo hunts on the east slopes. Chiniki was born and raised among the Cree; his half brother was Shuswap Chief Capote Blank aka. Asini Wachi (Cree for "Mountain"). The Wesley Band, originating as mixed Nakoda/Cree/Metis/Iroquois were culturally distinct from both Chiniki and Nakoda bands, being a true woodlands people, rarely venturing onto the plains, and generally not as equestrian as the other two bands. Bearspaw's band, on the other hand, originally were a true plains people, and rarely ventured into the wooded mountainous areas. Belliveau (1999:27 {01}) notes that historically the upper Saskatche- wan River was used by the Kootenay and Stoney, but like most, neglects to note that it was also part of the Mountain Cree territory (both the Mountain Cree and Mountain Stoney are part of the Mountain People division of the West People division of the Upriver People of the Plains Cree, under the successive Head Chieftainships of Chiefs Pesew and Bobtail of the Mountain Cree). Rocky Mountain House serves to prevent American penetration of the Canadian west (Dempsey 1973:9; Belliveau 1999:63) Perhaps an overstatement; the Americans never demonstrated no more interest in pushing north of the Missouri River than did the Canadians south of the border after the establishment of the 49th parallel as the international boundary. At no time did the American fur trading concerns ever push north until Joseph Kipp pushed north to establish Fort Standoff in 1870 - a period that ended in 1873. 1801 spring; RMHo; John Hughes takes over from Duncan McGillivray (Belliveau 1999:54 {01}) James Hughes, not John 1801 Jun; RMHo; A party under John Hughes, with David Thompson, sets out to find a route through the mountains. Guided by a Cree who was not familiar with the area. Travel up the N. Saskatchewan R., up the N. Ram R. through fallen timber & wide expanses of muskeg, follow N. fork of river to it's headwaters lake in a wooded mountainous are SW of Onion L., abandoning the route as impossible. Thompson & 2 men explore around the lake. Party returns to the mouth of the Ram R; Thompson & men build boat to continue upriver (Belliveau 1999:54-55 {01}); N. fork of N. Ram R. is Joyce Cr., which is not in keeping with the description of the route by Thompson. Belliveau assumes or accepts the prevailing view that Thompson's route was along the N. Ram river. However, his description of the terrain and creeks does not match this area. Ram R. has no headwaters lake, and it's headwaters are not in a wooded area, although Mud Lake has some similarity to Thompson's lake. 1810 Jul 19; Kootenay Plain; David Thompson's party returning from British Columbia; camp on the plains; possibly today carves his name & 1810 on a tree on SW edge of the plains (Belliveau 1995:57 {01}) should be June 1857-60 Palliser Expedition conducted to gather solid information on the territory of British North America west of the Great Lakes (Belliveau 1999:63); actually this area was already comparatively well known - if poorly documented outside HBCo circles; it actually covered only a very small part of British North America (perhaps 10%), which was relatively poorly known and documented. Palliser's Expedition had the reputation as being little more than a justification for a glorified buffalo hunting excursion. Hector's maps, however, did fill in more detail to Thompson's maps. 1870 c. Government of Canada recognizes the need to establish some control over the Natives and the land use in the west. Considerable unrest in the northwest; growing confrontations between the Europeans, Mixed Bloods and Natives. (Belliveau 1999:31 {01}) confrontrations ? really ? such as ? 1940's c. Bighorn I.R; "The Dakodan long, feathered head-dress was worn by Stoneys on special occasions" (940CAB10 Belliveau 1999:29 {01}) Nakoda Indians in ceremonial regalia. Note that the riders in back & on right actually wear Upright Bonnets, not Sun Bonnets; Sun Bonnets are not traditional to the Western Nakoda ======================================================================= TRENHOLM, Virginia Cole 1973 THE ARAPAHOES, OUR PEOPLE; University of Oklahoma Press, Norman; Although this book may be one of the standard references, it has a number of serious flaws. The main flaw is a ppor knowlege of cultural history of the northern plains and a consequent poor analysis an interpretation of fragmentary data. Trenholm has a tendency to play fast and loose with limited infor- mation, often poorly sequencing historical events or quoting them out of time, place or context in order to give added support to a statement. There appears to be no overall attempt to establish or discern historical sequences. Events are often stated without giving historical or temporal positioning. Part of this may be problem that Trenholm states various authors/authorities points of view, but does nothing to clarify or even point out contradictory positions. One gets the definate impression that Trenholm has already made up her mind on the sequence of events, or "the world as it should be", and then interprets incomplete data to fit the model, without. There may indeed be cause for such interpretation, but no clue is presented to support the conclusions - they appear to be pulled out of thin air. There is a complete lack of reference to the Cluny People of Northern Plains archaeology, who may well be the Woodlodge People (Basawauina - a Cree name), of her record. Likewise there is no analysis of the phylology of the Arapaho tribal names (Inunaina, Hitouenina, Atsina, Nawuthinihan), which show clear Cree affinity or, as with the Kananavich, Siouan affinity. 1691 "When the first white contacts were made, many of the Atsinas were speaking the Blackfoot language. This so confused the fur traders that they classified them as Blackfeet rather than as a seperate nation." (Trenholm 1973:15 {01}); Trenholm is unclear, but seems to be referring to the American traders, as the Canadians were usually quite explicit. Kelsey's references in 1691 were clearly Atsina, Henday's in 1754 clearly Blackfoot. Cocking identifies the Atsina as the Waterfall Indians in 1772. There is no confusion in the records. No indication exists that the Atsina at this time spoke Blackfoot. 1715 Gros Ventre already on the northern plains (Trenholm 1973:25 {01}) Trenholm here uses the term Gros Ventre to include the Arapaho 1740's French refer to the Atsina as the Gens de Vache (Cow or Buffalo People) (Trenholm 1973:17 {01}); a general term for the buffalo-hunting, or plains, Indians; Trenholm gives no date. 1743 Hudson Bay; A "Slave" woman gives Isham a description of her lands and her people, coming from a country with "a fine Navigable River that op'ns into the sea, with great plenty of the best and finest fur's, which is their Chiefest Commodity." (Trenholm 1973:17 {01}); the woman was probably a captive from a Columbia River tribe (Trenholm 1973:17n25 {01}); not likely. "Slave" being a designation applied to a number of tribes, including the Slavey and Blackfoot. 1750's Atsina are equestrian buffalo hunters, not trappers like the Cree (Trenholm 1973:18 {01}) who said the Cree were trappers at this time ? 1760 c. Arapaho, in possession of horses, may have gone south as far as the Black Hills to join the Kiowa in fighting the Snakes, and that these were probably the South People/South Men, who may also have been known the the Spaniards from Santa Fe as the Quartelejo Apache, found along the Arkansas R. in eastern Colorado, and possibly erroneously included in the Padouca (Apache) groups (Trenholm 1973:19 {01}) highly speculative & no evidence 1763 French give up their possessions in Canada but a number of French traders with Assiniboin helpers, continue to control the fur business (Trenholm 1973:19 {01}) no evidence of such. 1769 Hendry found "equestrian natives" in the same area that Cocking later found the Water-Fall Indians (Trenholm 1973:19 {01}) Hendry was there in the '50's, not in '69. 1772 Archithinue Indians use earthenware pots for cooking (Trenholm 1973:20 {01}) Atsina (Trenholm 1973) Generally regarded as having been Blackfoot 1779 Montreal; North West Fur Co. organized; build Rocky Mountain House (Trenholm 1973:21 {01}) Rocky Mountain House built '99 1786 by; David Thompson with 46 men builds Manchester House (Trenholm 1973:21 {01}); Thompson was merely a boy, and at York Factory until later this year. 1790 Arapaho still part of the Gros Ventre Nation (Trenholm 1973:23 {01}) Trenholm does not clearly define anywhere what is meant by Bison Path People, Gros Ventre (Atsina) Nation or Arapaho Nation (i.e., are the Atsina part of the Arapaho Nation or the Arapaho part of the Atsina Nation; or are they both part of the Bison Path People ?) 1790's Trenholm has the Arapaho wintering on the east slopes of the Rockies in Colorado and Wyoming (Trenholm 1973:33 {01}), yet not crossing the Missouri River in North Dakota until 1795, still being part of the Arapaho/Asina nation (Trenholm 1973:23 {01}) while by 1795 having the Tocaninanbiche already familiar with the regions west of the mountains (Trenholm 1973:23 {01}) 1795 c; Gros Ventre migrate southwest (Trenholm 1973:25 {01}); Gros Ventre here is given to mean Atsina and Arapaho 1795 Trudeau meets the Kananavich and Tocaninanbiche Indians. Trenholm claims that they are both Arapaho peoples, but Trudeau gives no hint that they are related peoples (Trenholm 1973:23 {01}) 1805 Big Bellies of the Fort De Prairie the main division of the Gros Ventre (Trenholm 1973:27 {01}); Actually, a generic name for Atsina from the upper Saskatchewan River area 1806 the Buffalo/Caneninavish Indians number 500 lodges inhabiting "the sources of two large rivers, one of which empties into the Missouri River below the Pawnee village," which he surmised was the Platte River, and the other which ran south and "empties of course, into the Gulf of Mexico." Trenholm suggests he may have been referring to only the Arapaho on the north & south Platte Rivers, or to the Arapaho of the Platte and the South People on the Arkansas R., thereby placing the Arapaho on the Arkansas long before anyone else (Henry in Trenholm 1973:47 {01}) 1) The Arkansas does not flow south and empty into the Gulf of Mexico. 2) No sources place the South People on the Arkansas R. - in fact, there exist no sources that give any location for them and may have referred to nothing more than the vanguard of the tribe. 1807 Lewis & Clark expedition has a brush with Indians identified as Atsina, but identified later by David Thompson as Blackfoot, killing one; this prompts the Atsina and Peigan to close the upper reaches of the Missouri River to white encroachment (Trenholm 1973:28 {01}) actully in '06 July 1807 Gros Ventre nation fragmenting; Kananavich moving south (Trenholm 1973:29 {01}); Trenholm here uses Gros Ventre Nation to mean all Atsina/Arapaho 1807 c. Cree & Assiniboin push the Gros Ventre south across the Missouri; joined by the Sioux in making war on the Gros Ventre at the mouth of the Yellowstone; in the process, the Gros Ventre lose the Flat Pipe to the Assiniboine (Trenholm 1973:29 {01}); Hypothetical; no evidence of these tribes pushing out the Gros Ventre at this time. Trenholm here apparently uses the term Gros Ventre to mean all Atsina/Arapaho in the first instance, and the Atsina specifically on the second. Trenholm's statements of population distribution (Trenholm 1973:30 {01}) are indecipherable 1808 by; Kananavich Indians already distrust the white man. Are still closely affiliated with the Gros Ventre, from whom they have only recently seperated (Trenholm 1973:28 {01}); unsupported statements; Gros Ventre here meanign Atsina or Arapaho ? 1811 c. Kan-ne-na-wish a "wandering people" on the headwaters of the Yellowstone River; 1500 warriors & 5000 souls (H.M. Brackenridge in Trenholm 1973:30 {01}); Trenholm claims these are actually the "main branch of the Gros Ventre, and not the Kananavich located by Trudeau in on the headwaters of the Cheyenne R. in '95. 1813 Horse Cr; Comanche meet with the Cheyenne to trade horses for whatever. Also present Arapaho, Kiowa & Sioux. Arapaho also have horses to trade. Before the trading begins a Sioux bludgeons a Kiowa with a tomahawk, signalling a general attack by the Sioux on the Kiowa, and driving the gathered Indians west into the foothills (Trenholm 1973:41 {01}) '15 in Hill (1979:25, 561 {00}) 1820 pre; Arapaho live on the Missouri River, in the vicinity of the Missouri River forks and the Marias River (Dodge in Trenholm 1973:99); may have seperated here from the Atsina (Trenholm 1973:99) Hardly; the Atsina lands were still far to the north, beyond the Cypress Hills-South Saskatchewan River; furthermore; Hugh Monroe, living with the Peigan in the area in the last half of the 1810's makes no mention of them 1826 Chesterfield House destroyed by the Atsina & they flee south (Trenholm 1973:88 {01}) destroyed and plundered by the Atsina & Blackfoot in '25 1832 U.S; Trading of liquor frowned on by reputable traders (Trenholm 1973:91) oh yeah ? 1837/38 Blackfoot suffer 1800 casualties to smallpox (Trenholm 1973:89 {01}) Other reliable sources give figures of 10,000, or 75% (see Fromhold 1995, 2001 {01}) 1846 Manitou Springs (CO); George F. Ruxton visits a manito effigy (Trenholm 1973:13 {01}) apparently of Southern Arapaho & Cheyenne affiliation. Use of the term Manitou, if a local usage, indicates Algonkian affinity. ====================================================================== BROWN, Michael 2005 The Gateway That Won The West, GATEWAY NORTH; Sun Media, February 22, 2005 p.4 Wow! This is incredible! It is so full of inaccuracies and steretypes it makes Gadd's book look good. This stuff was gleaned from THE PLACE WE CALL HOME, by Irwin Huberman, which does not speak well for that book. 1. "The local natives showed [Peter Pond] the Methye Portage..." a. He was guided by Francois Beaulieau, who was already living on the Athabasca River at the time. (Fromhold) 2. "Pond's Northwest Trading Company. (NWTC), which was created in 1779 by the Metis Nation, in partnership with trading firms in Montreal." a. The North West Trading Company was organized this year but did not begin operations until 1784. (Fromhold) b. It was not Pond's company, but a partnership of several interests working together for that year. (Fromhold) c. There is no Metis Nation listed on the partnership contract. Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve and a group of three dozen Montreal merchants financed the inland partners. The partners were Charles Paterson, Isaac Todd, John McGill, Simon McTavish, George McBeath, Benjamin Frobisher, Joseph Frobisher, John Ross, Peter Pond. There were no Metis partners, though "Canadians" and some Metis formed the bulk of the staff. (Fromhold) 3. There was no such thing as a "Metis Nation" at this time, nor any organized Metis communities west of the Great Lakes. a. In 1822 the Red River Settlement became largely Metis when the Hudson's Bay Company re-settled the families of hundreds of laid-off staff from the north to the Red River. The settlement was firmly under the control of the HBCo. (Fromhold) a. The first self-governing Metis communities developed in the 1840's: - Lac St. Anne, a largely Native community, and under the political control of the Catholic Church. (Fromhold) - White Horse Plains was authorized by the HBCo to be a self- governing community within the Red River Settlement. (Fromhold) - Lac La Biche, under the political control of the Catholic Church. (Fromhold) - Saint Ignatius (MT), affiliated with the Catholic Mission. (Fromhold) - Saint Francis Regis (WA), affiliated with the Catholic Mission. (Fromhold) - Saint Paul Des Soto (OR), affiliated with the Catholic Mission (Fromhold) - Pesew's Cree/Nakoda Band, a nomadic band consisting largely of the families of Metis laid off by the HBCo and affiliated with the Asini Wachi Wininiwak division of the Nehiyaw-Pwat Confederacy. (Fromhold) c. The first usage of the term Metis Nation was in 1845 by the Red River Metis in reference to the Metis of that area. (Fromhold) d. The first self-governing Metis communities developed around 1860 at Saint Albert (AB) under the Catholic Church, and 1869 at Tail Creek (AB) and Wood Mountain (SK), followed shortly by settlements in the Fort Carlton (SK), Judith River, Milk River and Sun River (MT) area. These communities considered themselves as totally independent communities with fraternal ties, but not as a constituent part of any overssing governing "Metis Nation". (Fromhold) e. The first Metis Nation was created by the Red River Metis under Louis Riel. It consisted only of the Red River community. Metis settlements elsewhere continued to consider themselves as independent communities with nothing other than fraternal ties to Red River. (Fromhold) f. The second Metis Nation was created by the unification of the Metis settlements around Fort Carlton under a common charter and constitution in 1883. Metis settlements elsewhere remained aloof from this Nation and generally opposed them in the 1885 Rebellion. (Fromhold) 4. In 1779 Pond "made contact with the Cree and Chipewyan fur trappers" on the Athabasca. a. Though WAPASEW with some of his people had been traveling into the Athabasca since 1715 this was only as intermediary traders between the Hudson's Bay Company and the Chipewyan and Tza Tinne (Beaver) Indians on the Athabasca. Neither they, or any other Cree, resided on the Athabasca at this time. Not until around 1790 were the Cree to be found in the Clearwater River area. (Fromhold) 5. "Pond was also responsible for mapping the rivers and lakes from the Great Lakes and Hudson Bay westward to the Rocky Mountains and northward to the Arctic." a. Pond never mapped anything. These rivers and lakes for the most part were not mapped until the arrival of John Turner, Peter Fidler and David Thompson a decade later. Pond drew a number of conceptual maps that he tried to sell to the U.S.A. and the Russians, and beyond his own route of travel to the Athabasca, were highly conjectural and flawed. They were also drawn with considerable differences depending on whether they were for the U.S.A. or the Russians. According to Pond, the Arctic and Pacific Oceans were only "a few days away" from Lake Athabasca. (Fromhold) 6. "Pond was the first to discover the oil sands." a. The tarsands were first reported when WAPASEW brought a sample to James Knight at York Factory in 1715. In 1719 he brought back more samples. (Fromhold) 7. "Today, the city of Fort McMurray is where Peter Pond's log house was found." a. There is no record that Peter Pond built a log house at the junction of the Clearwater and Athabasca River. The first post was built in the area in the early 1780's. (Fromhold) ====================================================================== MANDELBAUM, David G. 1940 THE PLAINS CREE; American Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Papers, Vol. 37, Part 2, New York; (Available in reprint from AMS Press, New York) Adequate but highly limited and outdated. Same problem as A.J. Ray's. Mandelbaum covers very little of the Plains Cree history, and seems to be totally unaware of the Western Cree, those Cree west of the Saskatchewan border and north to Lesser Slave Lake. The Western Cree not only have a cultural history different than that of the Sipi Wininiwak, Waskahikan Wininiwak and Downstream People, but were also culturally different. Blanket statements made by Mandelbaum should be taken with a grain of salt. For example, Mandelbaum states that in the 1840's-50's the Cree wintered along the valley of the Qu'Appelle and Saskatchewan Rivers as far west as the Beaver Hills. While this may be true of the eastern bands, it is not true of the Western bands, whos wintering camps were scattered in an arc from the Bow River north to Lesser Slave Lake and east to Lac La Biche. ======================================================================== TRENT UNIVERSITY PHOTO FILES Of those photos & captions with which we are familiar, there are a distressing number of errors. This makes suspect much of the captioned material. ======================================================================== THE WHITFORD PAPERS The Whitford Papers are a collection of papers collected and on file with the Glenbow-Alberta Archives at Calgary, mainly pertaining to Donald Whitford. The files consist mainly of the 'DONALD WHITFORD DIARIES' of about 1850-1900, and assorted sheets of births/deaths/baptisms and sundry notes on family members. As far as the birth/death records go, there is considerable inconsistency among them, including disagreement between the notes and official documents, and between Donald Whitford's dates for the births of his children, and the dates given by the children and official records. As most researchers will realize, this is normal for the time period before 1900. It is up the researcher to try to work this out. The DONALD WHITFORD DIARIES are often said to have been compiled as a daily journal by Donald Whitford from his early teens on. NOT TRUE. They were written from memory after retirement during his later years. Dates given by Whitford are genreally wrong when compared to more reliable sources, and can be years off. For example, his journal of the trip west is invariably one year off from the official records kept by the immigrant party. Nontheless, Donald Whitford's recollection of the events generally correspond well with other records of the same events, and often give another interesting view of these events. Whitford gives the name of his wife as Peggy Paul. This, too, is in error. Paul was the first name of her father, and not the family name. Interestingly (but not mentioned in the DIARIES), Donald and Peggy met briefly while he was in his young teens, but they did not marry until almost 20 years later. The Whitford clan, including Donald, played an important role in the history of the west. The Clan can best be described as Red River Metis and English Metis, with all that implies. That is, they were not the typical Metis of the west. Like the Red River Metis (as different from the White Horse Plains and Pembina Metis),like the Minnesota Metis of St. Paul, they were more urbane, and more oriented towards agriculture and wage employment than towards buffalo hunting. The Clan largely relocated to Victoria (Alberta), where they were the main element of the Victoria Settlement - a largely Anglo-Metis Methodist agricultural settlement. It was essentially a teetotaler settlement. Principally they were farmers who supplemented their lifestyle with occasional buffalo hunting, not the other way around, as was the case with other western metis settlements. In terms of their way of life, they were about one generation ahead of what was to come. Oddly enough, the Metis Association has chosen to promote the Victoria Settlement, in the form of the Metis Crossing Historical Park, as representing the typical Metis settlement and lifestyle - which was not the case. The Whitfords were generally employees of "The Establishment", working for the Hudson's Bay Company, the Methodist Church, and government agencies. Donald Whitford himself was a career employee of these organizations. Donald's uncle was a Hudson's Bay Chief Trader, and a Whitford founded the town of Blackfalds when he established a Road House (Inn) there in 1881. During the 1885 Rebellion the Victoria Settlement was staunchly Pro- government and the Whitfords were instrumental in keeping several of the local bands neutral. Virtually the entire Whitford clan took Metis status instead of Treaty Indian status in the Treaty process of the late 1870's. Ironically, one of the Whitford families was one of the last "Indians" to sign Treaty, signing in 1954 as part of the Sunchild Band. ======================================================================== HUNT, William R. 1993 WHISKEY PEDDLER, John Healy, North Frontier Trader; Mountain Press Publishing Co., Missoula, Montana; 1865 post; Gold discoveries in Montana disrupt the Indians; Black- foot forced to move north of the Marias River 'within Canada' (Hunt 1993:48 {01}); The Marias R. is not in Canada. The Blackfoot move north because of the Baker Massacre of '70. 1869 HBCo turns over title to it's vast domain to Canada. Never has had much interest in the Prairie provinces. (Hunt 1993:46-47 {01}) Wrong; HBC did not have title and did not transfer title; had sole trading rights in the Rupert's Land region, which it surrendered to Canada's authority. Has always had strong interest in the Prairie Provinces, but found little reason for setting up trading posts on the prairies themselves. 1869 Peigan, Blood and Blackfoot the main Indian groups in Alberta and Saskatchewan (Hunt 1993:47 {01}) Wrong; have almost no presence in Saskatchewan, though the dominant tribes in Alberta south of the Red Deer River. 1869 Metis form the largest non-Indian community in Alberta and Saskatchewan (Hunt 1993:47 {01}) i.e., largest non-Indian population 1869 Metis run most of the trading posts on the prairies (Hunt 1993:47 {01}) hardly. Most trading posts run by whites and first generation Metis, with Metis employees. A few Metis engaged in trade with the Indians, a small handful have their own trading houses - all of them minor affairs. 1869 by. trade in buffalo robes begins to deplete the herds in Montana and other US areas but the Canadian herds had seen little commercial hunting (Hunt 1993:47 {01}). The Canadian and northern US herds were one and the same, seasonally shifting north and south. 1870's Ft. Benton; T.C.Power, I.G. Baker & Conrad Brothers are staunch Republicans (Hunt 1993:72 {01}); T.C. Powers a Republican, I.G. Baker, Conrad Bros. & John Healy Democrats (Hunt 1993:73 {01}) 1871 Americans from Ft. Benton eager to emulate Healy & Hamilton build Forts Stand-Off, Slide-Out, Kipp (Robber's Roost) and Conrad in Alberta (Hunt 1993:56 {01}) "the best band of prairie men that the world produced doing legitimate business." (Healy in Hunt 1993:57 {01}) Ft. Spitzee built in '69, Fts. Kipp in & Stand-Off in '70 1872 confuses uses Donald Graham's description of Elbow River post and events at the post with Fort Whoop-Up 1874 Sept, early; Bow R. mouth; "And so we were at last at our journey's end, the Bow and Belly rivers, where there was supposed to be such luxuriant pasturage; according to most accounts, a perfect Garden of Eden, climate milder than Toronto, etc. As far as our experience goes that vicinity for at least sixty or seventy miles in every direction is little better than a desert, not a tree to be seen anywhere, ground parched and poor, and wherever there was a little swamp it was destroyed by the buffalo." (G.A. French in Hunt 1993:69 {01}) according to most other sources, French led a column from Roche A Perce (MB) to Swan River, Macleod led the column west to Bow River. 1874 Sept, mid; Sweetgrass Hills; Lt. Col. G.A. French with a small party sets out for Ft. Benton to arrange for provisions for his the NWMP force (Hunt 1993:69 {01}) probably Macloed, not French 1874 Sept, mid; Ft. Benton; Lt. Col. French well received; few residents defend the whiskey trade; I.G. Baker provides him with a memo describing the whiskey trade, saying that the trade had been in retreat for some time, and with 50 men the NWMP could easily control the country. (Hunt 1993:69 {01}) Macleod, not French 1876 June; Winnipeg; Philander Vogel, George M. Bell & James Hughes brought to trial for their part in the Cypress Hills Massacre. Residents of Ft. Benton pay for a crack defense attorney. Most witnesses still under indectment & refuse to leave the U.S. unless granted immunity. Abe Farwell, 4 metis & 4 Indians serve as witnesses for the prosecution. When a priest urges the witnesses to tell the truth, 3 men switch to testifying for the defense. James Wickes Taylor, U.S. Consul in Winnipeg, believes that T.C. Power had deliberatly misrepresented "what was an ordinary Indian fight, as an outrage by the whites, and by criminal prosecutions, to exclude competition from the Cypress Hills in the trade for buffalo hides." and that Farwell "a liar and perjurer" was Power's instrument. (Hunt 1993:65 {01}) competition between Powers & Baker; such "Indian fights" were not "ordinary" in Canada. Actually in '75 3 men involved in the Cypress Hills Massacre arrested in Canada and sent east for trial. They are aquitted after intervention by the United States' State Department. {P} 1877 Oct 16; Ft. Walsh; Sitting Bull appeals to some French Indians for protection when 2 Americans approach the house where he was staying (Healy in Hunt 1993:90 {P}) Sitting Bull did not stay in a house while there. 1877 Oct 17; Ft. Walsh; Healy boasts to Stillson that he could reach the telegraph in Helena 340 miles distant within 48 hours; Terry insists the feat is impossible. Healy rides all night, making 100 miles to the Milk River before getting a fresh horse from a freighter. Stops once for water before reaching 28 Mile Spring, whre he changes horses again. Reaches Ft. Benton in 24 hours where his horse, a little cayuse, collapsed. Has a meal & bath & continues on the stage road on a thoroughbred. After 60 miles changes horses again & continues to Prickly Pear Canyon. At a store 30 miles from Helena changes horses, but has to be helped up onto the horse. Arrives in Helena 43 hours after leaving Ft. Walsh to file a scoop with the New York Herald (Hunt 1993:87 {01}) Helena is 200 mi. & Milk R. 48 by air; perhaps 250 by trail Return to Top of page INDIAN WARS v.21.10.01 Although Indian Wars form a major part of the history of United States, they were a rare event in Canada. Total deaths of whites in Western Canada at the hands of Indians number under 20 persons. NO white women and children were ever killed Western Canada by Indians (excepting in a single case of an attack on an AMERICAN wagon train that strayed into Canada), though Indian women and children were killed by white soldiers in the 1885 rebellion. Attacks on Americans and U.S. whiskey trading posts in Canada by the Blackfoot were common; these were not directed against Canadians. Between 1866 and 1895 the U.S. fought 943 military engagements with Native people. That war caused tens of thousands of casualties, mostly of native people. In the same period.... Canadian troops fought seven engagements...Canadian natives died too, but more from epidemic than bullets. (Hannatt 1997 {01}) Two of these Canadian engagements were in fact against the Metis, rather than the Indians, and were more a war against rebellion by frontier settlers, rather than Indian wars. In retrospect, U.S. relations with the Indians were one of planned incessant encroachment and warfare; Canadian relations were one of planned intentional minimizing and denial of Treaty obligations. Ironically, it is the U.S. Indian who in the end seems to have received the better deal. American reservations on the whole were larger than Canadian reservations per capita when issued and, as a rule, still are, in spite of having lost greater percentages of these lands than have Canadian reserves. Furthermore, U.S. Indian "Nations" as a rule have more rights and recognition to self-government status than do Canadian "First Nations." Many U.S. reservations have virtual Self-Government status; no Canadian First Nations have even the pretence to such status.
CANADA Iroquois Wars (Iroquois) 1620- Pontiac's Rebellion (Ottawa) 1763 Haida Raids (Haida) 1840's Northwest Rebellion 1885 (Essentially one of Canada's numerous rebellions against the central government, supported by a few Indian Bands from the Nehiyapwat Confederacy) Fish Creek (1885) Batoche (1885) Frog Lake Massacre (1885) Cutknife Hill (1885) Frenchman's Butte (1885) Treaty Rights Uprising (2010) UNITED STATES v.18.10.01 Queen Ann's War 1740 Cresap's War 1774 Dunmore's War French and Indian Wars/Seven Years War 1755 Pontiac's Rebellion 1763 Creek War 1813 Fort Sinquefield (1813) Arikara War 1823 Seminole War 1832 Navajo War 1850's Oregon War 1851-1856 Battle Rock (1851) Rogue River (1856) Big Meadows (1856) Modoc War 1853 Pit River War 1853 Sioux Wars (Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho) 1854- Grattan Massacre (1854) Ash Hollow (1855) Solomon River (1857) Northwest Conflict (aka. Yakima War, Coeur D'Alene War, Spokane War, Rogue River War) 1855-1858 (Coeur D'Alene, Cayuse, Palouse, Spokane, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Yakima) Yakima War (1855) Dalles (1856) Grand Ronde (1856) Walla Walla (1856) Steptoe Butte (1858) Four Lakes (1858) Spokane Plain (1858) Santee Uprising 1857- Spirit Lake (1857) Commanche Wars 1858- (Commanche, Kiowa, Kiowa-Apache) Wild Rose Pass (Cherry's Last Stand) (1855) Antelope Hills (1858) Canadian River (1858) Wichita Expedition (1858) Rush Springs (1858) Crooked Creek (1859) Adobe Walls (1864) Soldier Springs (1868) Red River War (1871) Salt Creek Prairie (1871) Rock Station (1871) McClellan Creek (1872) Fort Clark (1873) Adobe Walls (1874) Buffalo Wallow (1874) Palo Duro Canyon (1874) Pyramid Lake/Paiute War (Paiute) 1860 Williams Station (1860) Big Bend (1860) Carson Valley Expedition (1860) Big Meadows (1860) Pinnacle Mountain (1860) Apache/Chiricahua War 1860-1862 (Chiricahua, White Mtn., Warm Springs) Apache Pass (1862) Navajo War 1861- Ft. Fauntleroy (1861) Bear Springs Campaign (1863) Canyon Bonito Campaign (1863) Canyon De Chelly (1864) Long Walk (1864) Shoshone War 1863 Bear River (1863) Apache War (Mescalero) 1862- Santee War 1862-1864 New Ulm (1862) Lake Shetek (1862) Fort Ridgely (1862) Wood Lake (1862) Whitestone Hill (1863) Kildeer Mountain (1863) Cheyenne War (S. Cheyenne, S. Arapaho) 1864- Cedar Bluffs (1864) Sand Creek (1864) Summit Springs (1869) Sioux Wars (Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho) 1865-1878 Camp Dodge (1865) Powder River/Connor's Expedition (1865) Fort Connor (1865) Carrington's Campaign/Red Cloud's War (1866) Fetterman (1866) Hayfield (1867) Wagon Box (1867) Hancock's War (1867) Pawnee Fork (1867) Winter/Forsyth's Campaign (1868) Beecher Island (1868) Washita (1868) Black Hills Expedition (1874) Bighorn Expedition/Sheridan's Campaign (1876) Rosebud (1876) Little Bighorn (1876) Warbonnet Creek (1876) Slim Buttes (1876) Winter Campaign (1876) Dull Knife (1876) Yellowstone River (1876) Yellowstone River (1877) Yellowstone Campaign (1877) Ft. Robinson (1877) Border Campaign (1878) Milk River (1878) Muddy Creek (1877) Wounded Knee (1890) Drexel Mission (1890) Blackfoot War (Peigan) 1865-1870 Wagon Train (1867) Americans attacked in Canada Dearborn (1868) Whiskey Traders (1869-73) in Canada Baker Massacre (1870) Apache Wars (San Carlos, Pinal, Yavapai) 1871-1875 Camp Grant (1871) Tonto Basin (1872) Skull Cave (1873) Turret Peak (1873) Modoc War 1872-73 Lava Beds (1873) Kickapoo (Kickapoo) 1873 Piedras Negras (1873) Apache Wars 1877 (Warm Springs, Chiricahua, Mescalero, White Mountain) Tinaja des las Palmas (1880) Rattlesnake Spring (1880) Tres Castillos Mountains (1880) Cibeque Creek (1881) Fort Apache (1881) Gila Valley (1882) Mogollon Rim (1882) Big Dry Wash/East Clark Creek (1882) Sierra Madre Campaign (1883) Apache Village (1883) Mexicoan Campaign (1885) Santa Cruz Valley (1886) Nez Perce War 1877 Wallowa (1877) White Bird Creek (1877) Looking Glass (1877) Clearwater (1877) Ft. Fizzle (1877) Big Hole (1877) Camas Meadows (1877) Canyon Creek (1877) Cow Island (1877) Bearspaw Mountains (1877) Bannock War 1878 (Bannock, Paiute, Sheepeater, Shoshone) Canadian Expulsions 1878-96 (Cree, Soto, Nakoda, Siksika Sioux, Kainai, North Peigan, Tsuu T'Ina, Metis) Ute War 1879 Meeker (1879) Continue to The Western Cree index more detailed information Continue to a listing of Bands/Nations for select Indian Tribes OTHER SELECTIONS Return to Heritage Consulting homepage Return to Native Studies directory Return to Native Tribes listings Continue to History Bibliography Continue to History directory Continue to Historic photos Continue to Book Reviews directory Continue to Books for sale Continue to Collectibles for sale Continue to The Western Plains Cree index
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