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ANTHROPOLOGY TABLE OF CONTENTS

visit: Central Alberta's Vanishing Heritage visit: Protect The Land HERITAGE CONSULTING is the Main researcher and information source on Western Canadian Native/Fur Trade History and maintains more informa- tion on file than any other source. We specialize in Western Canadian Native and Historical information, but maintain files on over 2000 tribes. Our files are the most comprehensive on-line files on the history of Indian Tribes, the Fur Trade and Aboriginal/Fur Trade genealogies and biographies. We maintain the largest electronic data files and research files on Western Canadian Aboriginal and Fur Trade history and Genealogies on the internet. To date we now have - over 1,000,000 pages of information - biographies/histories on 600,000 westerners from before 1890 - comprehensive histories of over 30,000 tribes and bands In addition, our files are expanding into broader areas of world history and tribal peoples. Below is the MASTER DIRECTORY for ANTHROPOLOGY files currently existing in our Databank- Follow links for more detailed listings: Search Search our Site for information on sites not on this list

TABLE OF CONTENTS

For Heritage Consulting Databank
BEHAVIOR ABORIGINAL LAW SOCIAL ANTRHOPOLOGY CEREMONIALISM & RELIGION OCCULT ETHNICITY & TRIBALISM LAND AND CULTURE STRUCTURE NATIVE ISSUES ABORIGINAL SOCIAL ISSUES PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY KINSHIP WESTERN CANADIAN PEOPLE IN THE PAST Birth, death & affiliation listings publication Master Genealogical Chart publication RACE Y-CHROMOSOME VARIATION BLOOD TYPE VARIATION MT-DNA VARIATION PHENOTYPES TEETH PEOPLES, TRIBES, CULTURE & ETHNOGRAPHIES American Lists African/Eurasian Lists Sex, Incest, Prostitution, Culture and Law BIBLIOGRAPHY Search
SEX, INCEST, PROSTITUTION, CULTURE AND LAW There, now that the title has caught your attention, let's get on with the article. Let's look at Incest and Prostitution (forget the Sex, that was just to get your attention) from the viewpoint of the impartial Anthropologist, rather than from that of the Sociologist, the Law, or the morally outraged. Having been raised in a fairly straight-laced Protestant family I was, in fact, quite inhibited concerning all sexual subjects (and still am in discussing such matters), so it was frequently quite an effort to wrap my head around some of the following concepts. In the Social Sciences there are numerous theories and different ways of looking at things (mainly because we do not yet have our act together for a Unified Theory of Behavior which, like the Theory of Relativity, is easy to symbolize, but damned difficult to quantify in details). It is up to the researcher to choose the 'best fit' model for whatever he/she wishes to look into. Some of these theories are ideologically driven (which does not mean that they may not be right). As the budding young anthro/soc student will immediately notice, I am using the Structuralist Paradigm in my analysis of these two subjects. There are also other ways of looking at the issue (check it out in terms of Games Theory, for example). The Functional paradigm was chosen beause Incest and Prostitution are deemed as DEVIANT and destructive social behaviors to both self, society and participants. The question posed was What is the Role in society, and what makes it destructive? Does this give us a clue about how the social condition can be ameliorated? In the first case (Incest), I am applying the principles of Critical Thinking and Logical, which says that 'If A, then B, and if A,B, the C' - that is to say, if we have 'Fact A', then by logical deduction, we will get result 'B' (in fact, there may be any number of 'B' results). It is basically a theoretical math algorhytm. Also involved is some NAMING THEORY. In the second case (Prostitution), I apply a simple Cost-Benefit model and Optimalization model (both social and economic). Both are cold, hard, morally-neutral mathematical models. Again, we throw in (perforce) the issue of Naming Theory. The results turned out to be somewhat surprising to and unexpected. Be warned, the following articles end up being Politically Incorrect, but unavoidable, given the parameters involved. INCEST Like most members of Canadian and U.S.A. society I have grown up inculcated with the Incest Taboo. That is, with the belief that Incest is contrary to God and Nature. That it is a perversion and, in the eyes of God, a great sin. We are, in fact, inculcated to believe that this is a universal belief. Incest, as I undersood it, is a sexual relationship between a parent and child. Through the efforts of activists, this definition has been expanded to include any sexual or quasi-sexual behavior between related individuals. This extends to the point where if a child is to see a parent in underwear it is deemed a case of sexual abuse. According to Sociologists, Incest (however it is defined) is seen as DEVIANT behavior. As an anthropologist, however, I came to understand that the Incest Taboo, was not at all universal, and in some societies, actually condoned in one way or another. It also raised the questions of what is the difference between underwear and swim suits. And what is the difference Naturists and Nudists exposing themselves, and parents in underwear? Even in Western society attitudes towards incest vary widely. In Canada and the U.S.A. incest is subject to severe punishment by the law. In some western European countries incest is not a crime. Other western countries fall in between these poles. Nontheless, I responded with revulsion and loathing when hearing of instances of incest. And on a reserve you hear enough rumors of these things. A number of close acquaintances, in fact, verified this with their own personal experiences. One day while browsing through sociological research data I came across the information that 80% of females in Western society have experienced some form of incestuous relationship. This includes all forms, from being co-erced, being 'led', or being consentual. However, this set in motion the train of thought that if 80% of the females in our society have had incestuous experiences, then that is not a deviant behavior. Instead, it is a NORM. If 80% have had such an experience, then the Incest Taboo in our society is a MYTH, an IDEALIZED NORM that does not reflect reality. The reality - and the unadmitted norm - is that it exists in our society. Looking at a broader social base, incest appears to be biologically normal to various degrees in all societies. Even in the animal kingdom there is no universal Incest Taboo, although higher mammals tend to avoid mother-son relations. In our society we know that incestuous relations as a child often express themselves as TRAUMA and MALADAPTATION and psychiatric problems in adults - at least, so we are told by the experts. However, anthropologically we know that this is not the case in societies where incest tolerated. Indeed, the degree of Trauma and Maladaptation is directly proportional to how much a society stigmatizes incest. Apparently then, such Trauma, Maladaptation and psychiatric problems do not come from incest, but from STIGMATIZATION BY SOCIETY. In Canadian/U.S.A. society persons involved in incestuous relations are heavily persecuted by law, pilloried by the church, denigated by society, and looked on with disgust. Females are generally are often thought to have been at least partly to blame, and scorned accordingly. Socialy, those involved in incest (especially females) are saddled with guilt and shame and pilloried as 'sinners' - guilt and shame that are also laid on the mothers. It appears, then, that it is the Stigmatization, rather than the act, that is responsible for subsequent trauma. Were society to accept the behavior for what it actually seems to be - part of growing up - there would be less problems. Boy, am I going to get Sh** over this. PROSTITUTION Missing Native Women As noted in our segment on Missing Native Women Search

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ARCHAEOLOGY TABLE OF CONTENTS

"Salvage archaeologists - gleaners as they are called - work behind, around and ahead of the bulldozers..." (National Geographics 1982 162:1:1) HERITAGE CONSULTING is the Main researcher and information source on Western Canadian Native/Fur Trade History and maintains more informa- tion on file than any other source. We specialize in Western Canadian Native and Historical information, but maintain files on over 2000 tribes. Our files are the most comprehensive on-line files on the history of Indian Tribes, the Fur Trade and Aboriginal/Fur Trade genealogies and biographies. We maintain the largest electronic data files and research files on Western Canadian Aboriginal and Fur Trade history and Genealogies on the internet. To date we now have - over 1,000,000 pages of information - biographies/histories on 600,000 westerners from before 1890 - comprehensive histories of over 30,000 tribes and bands In addition, our files are expanding into broader areas of world history and tribal peoples. Below is the MASTER DIRECTORY for ARCHAEOLOGY files currently existing in our Databank- Follow links for more detailed listings:
Search Search our Site for information on sites not on this list

TABLE OF CONTENTS

visit: Central Alberta's Vanishing Heritage visit: Protect The Land
CALENDRICS CULTURES/TRADITIONS see American Lists see African/Eurasian Lists Beer Bottle Culture EARLY MAN (Timeline, Bering Strait Hypothesis) PALEOCLIMATE PHOTO RESOURCES THEORY TRANSOCEANIC CONTACT REGIONAL: AFRICA (Timeline, Bibliography) CULTURES (see Eurasian Peoples Listings) SITES EUROPE (Timeline, Bibliography) CULTURES (see Eurasian Peoples Listings) SITES Ukrainian Sites Listings ASIA (Timeline, Bibliography) CULTURES (see Eurasian Peoples Listings) SITES NORTH AMERICA Buffalo Jumps BUFFALO POUNDS AND THE DONALDA POUND Medicine Wheels, Quaternary Ice Frontal Lakes ALBERTA ARCHAEOLOGY: CONTRIBUTIONS Historic Maps Listing Aboriginal & Historic Trails ALBERTA ARCHAEOLOGY: CONTRIBUTIONS Protohistoric Weather Projectile Points McKean Pelican Lake Culture Areas: Arctic, Great Basin, Mesoamerica, Plains, Plateau, Southwest, Subarctic, Woodlands) CULTURES/TRADITIONS (see also TRIBAL Lists AN ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO PROJECTILE POINTS FOR THE ALBERTA REGION; 1972 ALBERTA ARCHAEOLOGY: CONTRIBUTIONS WESTERN CREE BOOKS BACKGROUND AND PREHISTORY ALBERTA ARCHAEOLOGY: CONTRIBUTIONS 1650-1770, THE CANOE CREE ETHNOGRAPHY; 374 pages THE OLD NORTH TRAIL (Cree Trail) BUFFALO POUNDS AND THE DONALDA POUND SITES Canada by Province CANADIAN HISTORIC SITES LISTING Native Sites PHOTOS LISTING Alberta Archaeological Sites Listing Historial Sites Listing Alberta Heritage Management Board Mismanagement Aboriginal & Historic Trails NATIVE MUSEUMS Native Sites photo listing BOOKS Saskatchewan Archaeological Sites listing Historial Sites Listing Aboriginal & Historic Trails United States by State MONTANA HISTORIC SITES LISTING SOUTH AMERICA CULTURES (see Eurasian Peoples Listings) SITES ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES see also Tribes/Cultures ALBERTA SITES Significan Publications Trail Studies Land Use Studies ALBERTA ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES LISTING SITE PHOTO LISTINGS ALBERTA HISTORICAL SITES LISTING CANADIAN HISTORIC SITES LISTING PHOTOS LISTING ALBERTA SITE PHOTO LISTINGS GRANDFATHER TREES/HERITAGE TREES NATIVE MUSEUMS WESTERN CREE BOOKS and archaeology BACKGROUND AND PREHISTORY JASPER NATIONAL PARK WEST CENTRAL ALBERTA ALBERTA ARCHAEOLOGY: CONTRIBUTIONS THE OLD NORTH TRAIL (Cree Trail) 1650-1770, THE CANOE CREE ETHNOGRAPHY; 374 pages THE MOUNDBUILDER CULTURE IN ALBERTA: 1150 A.D. BUFFALO POUNDS AND THE DONALDA POUND Trans-Mountain Pipeline, TERA ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY Re-ASSESSMENT, Winterburn - Wabamun, Alberta ALBERTA ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES SITES LISTING PHOTOS BOOKS ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE CREMONA - SUNDRE AREA, ALBERTA Population and Land Use Studies: McKean, Hannah, Duncan, Pelican Lake, Besant & Late Plains ALBERTA ARCHAEOLOGY: CONTRIBUTIONS PREHISTORIC CULTURAL DISTRIBUTION AND DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFTS IN WESTERN SOUTH ALBERTA review ALBERTA ARCHAEOLOGY: CONTRIBUTIONS Ice Frontal Positions ALBERTA ARCHAEOLOGY: CONTRIBUTIONS WESTERN CREE BOOKS and archaeology BACKGROUND AND PREHISTORY ALBERTA ARCHAEOLOGY: CONTRIBUTIONS 1650-1770, THE CANOE CREE BUFFALO POUNDS AND THE DONALDA POUND ETHNOGRAPHY; 374 pages THE MOUNDBUILDER CULTURE IN ALBERTA: 1150 A.D. Alberta has 30,000 registered archaeological sites. In Alberta archaeological sites are claimed to be the property of the Government of Alberta. Odd. By the Supreme Court decision, whatever was not specifically surrendered by First Nations in treaties remains their property. Archaeological, Historic, Ethnological, Cultural and Religious sites were NOT surrendered, hence remain property of the aboriginal peoples. Some are attempting to regain proprietory rights from the Province of Alberta. In Alberta, archaeological and historic sites fall under the juresdiction of the Heritage Resources Management Board and Archaelogical Survey of Alberta (HRMB/ASA). Being primarily interested in Early Man sites and Pioneer buildings, they have done an abysmal job in protection of sites of aboriginal importance and have displayed gross negligence, incompetence and lies (see below). Ethics In Archaeology Below is a listing of Archaeological Sites in Alberta (Canada), for which information is on file. A listing for site information from other areas is not yet posted on Internet. The following map photo shows the kind of density of sites that can be expected throughout Alberta. No work has been done in Alberta to actually locate and inventory the sites.
AN ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO PROJECTILE POINTS FOR THE ALBERTA REGION 1972; 50 pages; The Only guide to Arrowheads from the Alberta Region; over 300 illustrated points; Agate Basin, Alberta, Avonlea, Besant, Bitterroot, Boreal, Clovis, Duncan, Eden, Ensor, Fewkes, Fletcher, Folsom, Frederick, Grande Prairie, Hanna, Hell Gap, High River, Irvine, Jensen, Lerma, Lewis, Lovell Constricted, Lusk, McKean, McKean-Duncan, Meserve, Midland, Milnesand, Nanton, Nitchi Creek, Oxbow, Oxbow (Castor Creek), Paskapoo, Peace River, Pekisko, Pelican Lake, Pelican Lake (Cremona), Pelican Lake (Wetaskiwin), Pelican Lake Stemmed, Plains & Prairie Side-Notched, Plains Triangular, Plainview, Samantha, Sandy Creek, Scottsbluff, Silver Creek, Snake River, Sutherland, Table Mountain, Thunder Creek, Washita Copy available from Heritage Consulting $16.94 Cdn including shipping/handling

photo listing Significan Publications Trail Studies Land Use Studies 9,500 B.C; Vermilion Lakes (AB); possibly oldest known house remains in Alberta {00} 1200 A.D. The Moundbuilder/Temple Mound Culture in Alberta 2001 Aug; Calgary; City of Calgary plows a prehistoric Ceremonial site near Beddington Tr. & Beddington Blvd. N.E., adjacent to Nose Creek Confluence Park. About 20 Teepee Rings & Medicine Wheels; 150-meter long string of 26 stone cairns. Destroyed to make a business park. (Calgary Sun, September 2, 2001 {04}) 2003 Alberta (v.28) has some 230 unregistered cemeteries, gravesites and burials of unknown historical origin (Loome 2003 {04}); plus numerous unrecorded burials. These include: Akusu Lake Allstones Creek Amber River Battle Lake Battle River camps Battle River Crossing 998CAB02 Battle River Crossing/Ponoka Sharphead Battle River Ferry Battle R. Mistapew O Beaver Lake I.R. boundary Beaver Creek Quarry Belly Buttes Big Bay Big Grave Flats Big Knife Cr. Mistapew Big Knife Cr. Dubay Birch Mountains Bistcho Lake Blackfoot MC Ossuary Blindman River Crossing Blue Quills Indian School Blue Ridge Bonny Knoll Boss Hill Bowden *Brocket Brousseau Buck Lake Buffalo Lake 1856 Buffalo Lake 1870's Buffalo River Burial Mound Complex Burnt Timber *Carcajou Cardinal River Chip Lake Chipi Wachi *Christina Lake Clearwater Falls Clearwater I.R. Cuthead Creek Deadman Hills Death Valley *Devil's Head Dogpound Creek/Maski Pitonew O Ka Sisa Donalda west *Du Tremble Duck House Dunvegan Edberg Eliski (Boyer River) Osuary Edmonton 119 St. 23 Ave. (dumped in landfill) Edmonton 105 St. Edmonton Indian Gardens Edmonton Indian Res. School (Poundmaker's) Edmonton Ritchie Cemet. S7-52-24-4 Edmonton Rossdale Cemet. Edmonton Royal Glenora Club Edmonton Northwest (1) Edmonton Southside (3) Edmonton 109 st & Lesard Dr. Ellerslie & Hwy 2 End Of The Water Enoch I.R. Indian Gardens Entrance Ermineskin Ind. School Flag Hill Fish Child & Hind Bull Forestburg FtV Gravel Pit FtV Intersection Gabriel Lake Georgetown Ghost Lake Bird Grave Flats Grave Flats (Little Smoky) destroyed in gravel crushing Grave Lake (AB) Grave Lake (SK) Graveyard Lake Grizzly Coulee Grouard Residential School Gull Lake smallpox Gull Lake Baker Habay Mass Grave Habay Cemetery Habay Ranger Station Hairy Hill Happyland *Haunted Lake Hay River Hay/Chinchaga Heifer Lake Highwood River child Highwood River Bird Highwood River Jct. House River Huff/Little Smoky (destroyed in gravel mining) Hummingbird Creek *Indian Cabins *Indian Flats Indian Trails Ranch Innisfail Tsuu T'Ina Jarvis Lake Jasper House Joachim Flats Jones Farm (Cremona) Kaquanum Butte Karpinsky Site Ketchemoot Cr. Ki Anan Askis Kin Canyon King Creek Kinikinik Hill Kiskion Lac Des Arcs Bird Lac La Biche Lac Lemay Lake Abraham Leadale/Dickson Lime Kiln Bottom Little Grave Flats Little Hay River Little Johnson Lake Little Red River Lloyd Creek Long Rapids Longview Hill/Cochrane Manito Lake (SK) Meander River Meat Hunter's Medicine Hills N. Butte Medicine Lake *Medicine River Crossing Menaik Papiw, Maski Pitonew O Ka Sisa, Mistapew, Bozilla Meeting Creek east Midnapore Indian School Minnewanka (Bird) Moberly Homestead Morley CNR Moose Lake Mountain Park Mumm Creek Newcombe Nose Hill (Calgary) Okotoks Old Man River Old Swan's Palisades Paspaschew Indian Gardens Paspaschew Otaskan Peace Point *Peavine Prairie Peenaquim Park Pekisko (Bird) Pesew's Pinto Creek Pinto Horse Butte *Pond's House Pretty Hill Rabbit Hill Rainbow Lake Rainbow Tower *Rat Creek Raven River Red Deer Bower x2 Red Deer Bridge Red Deer Indian School Red Deer Fairview Meadows mass grave Red Deer Fairview Chief Red Deer Kin Canyon Red Deer Scotiabank Red Deer Village Red Deer Village aboriginal Red Deer Westpark Red Willow Compressor RWMC Burial Grounds Reed's Hill Jones Rocky Lane Rocky Mountain House Rocky Point Rosehip Hill St. Albert Indian School St. Paul des Cris Salter Creek Saskatoon Lake Seebee (Flett) Sharphead Band Cemetery Sick Man Hill *Silver City Skeleton Creek Skunk Hollow Skull Rock Smallpox Camp Smallpox Creek Snake Hill Steen River Southesk Lake Southesk R. Stettler Stoney Lake Sunset Hill Sunchild Sunset Hill ridge Tail Creek Tinathea Lake Twig River Two O'Clock Creek 1 Two O'Clock Creek 2 Vermilion Chutes Victoria Wascasoo Creek *Waterton Watt Mountain (Martel) Welch Creek Wentzel Lake Westward Ho Whitemud Creek Whitford/Egg Lake Ossuary Willow River Zama Mountain (Bassa) Zama's House (Fromhold 2003 {04}) The government of Alberta has repeatedly refused to extend any protection to Historic and Aboriginal burials. "One of the hallmarks of a civilized society is how we respect the dead." (Justice Sterling Sanderman 2008 {10}) Photos 2008 Jan; CAN/AB, Edmonton; 111 st. Burial done to the same standard as burial excavations done by George Bryce, Henry Montgomery and others in regards to the Manitoba burial mounds in the 1880's, and which were subsequently censured as how not to conduct burial excavations. WESTERN CREE ETHNOGRAPHY; 374 pages Appendix on Cree burial customs GRANDFATHER TREES/HERITAGE TREES Aboriginal peoples, like the early Germanic peoples, have a special reverence for certain trees and, especially, ancient trees. Certain groves of trees are considered to be spiritual shrines, sacred to the Great Spirit (God). Ancient trees, "Grandfather Trees", are considered as shrines, and are respected both for their very age, as being an Elder of the species, and as being the representative of the species as a whole, incorporating the spirit of the species. These are considered as sacred religious sites, and were (still are) places to withdraw to for quiet contemplation and meditation. Offerings to the Great Spirit were frequently left at these sites. This practice is rarely followed today because these offerings have a tendency to be stolen by the whites. To date we have a databank of some 50 trees in Alberta that are several hundred years old to 1,000 years old. As a rule, Heritage Alberta and Alberta archaeologists neither know nor care about such cultural/religious sites, and they are unable to identify them. Nor do they have any interest in the protection of such sites. ALBERTA SITES
Sites of Aboriginal Import are highlighted, with a general description of the site and history. We give no special descriptions of Medicine Wheels or Buffalo Jumps, these being generally well known. Nor do we give locations of burials, or the Moundbuilder sites to protect them from vandalism. Nor do we give locations of Pictograph sites, again to protect them from vandalism - although this seems to a lost cause. Many of these sites are already badly damaged (some totaly destroyed) by vandalism and by rock climbers. AAA Akusu Lake, Aldersyde, Allstones Cr., Andrew, Antler Hill Elk Pound, Aspin Ho., Athabasca R., Axe Flats Axe Flats, on the Siksika First Nations reservation, is one of 3 Fortified Village sites in Alberta once occupied by a corn-growing people. It is now part of the Blackfoot Crossing Heritage Center. However, no further work has been done on the site since Dick Forbis did some exploratory work in the 1950's, so little or nothing is really known about the site. The site relates to the PASAWAW INEW people mentioned on our History Page for 1760. More detailed information is available in our files. BBB Baker Lake, Banff, Banff N.P., Battle River Overview of the archaeology of the middle Battle River country. Battle River Crossing In the 1870's Metis buffalo hunters and refugees from the Red River settlement emigrated to the Buffalo Lake area. A number of these families established homesteads along the Battle River from Ponoka to east of Driedmeat Lake, developing it in the traditional River Lot system. By 1880 it was the second largest agricultural settlement in Alberta, rivaling St. Albert. After the disappear- ance of the buffalo the settlement began to decline. Virtually nothing remains of it today. Battle River Lake Before 1810 the Dumont family began to homestead in this area, making it the earliest farming settlement in Alberta. By the 1840's this had become the wintering settlement of the Dumont Band (q.v.) and the largest settlement in Alberta. Rev. Robert Rundle established a Methodist mission here in the early part of the decade but when he left the lay missionary abandoned the mission. Subsequently the settlers moved out, mostly to the Catholic mission at Lac St. Anne. Beaver Lake, Beaver R., Beddington Cr., Belly Buttes, Bezya, Big Grave Flats, Big Knife, Big Lake Buffalo Jump, Birch Hills, Birch Mountains, Fox Island In Lac La Biche. Significant in that this is a Cree site from around 1650 A.D., proving that, contrary to popular academic wisdom, the Cree were in Alberta by this time. Blackfoot Crossing, Blaine, Blindman R., Blood Indian Cr., Bluffton, Boss Hill From 1870 to 1880 the largest settlement west of Red River. With the decline of the buffalo Cree and Metis buffalo hunters began to congregate in the Buffalo Lake and Tail Creek area in the late 1860's. A settlement developed at Boss Hill, on the northeast corner of the lake, which was to gather some 2000 residents and boast a Hudson's Bay Company fort and a North West Mounted Police Fort, complete with pallisades and canon. A few wintering cabins were built at the site but it was to remain mainly a tipi village, populated largely by nomadic Cree hunters. Well into the 1900's remains were still to be found here, including large rendering cauldrons. Subsequently the site was forgotten, until re-located by the author in 1995. Bow Fort, Bow River, Bow Valley The Bow Valley Park-Kananaskis area, just south of Manito Ostikwan, is a traditionally important spiritual area. It contains a number of spiritual sites, pictograph sites and MISTAPEW (Sleeping Giants). See Kananaskis Valley history report Boyer R., Boyer's Fort, Bracken Site, British Block Cairn,, Blue Lake Boyer River In the 1980's there was an archaeological project at the site of Boyer's Fort. The archaeologists so pissed off the locals by their arrogance that the locals never bothered to tell them about another bigger nearby location where they had been recovering buckets full of old trade goods and rusted metal. Buck Lake, Buck Lake House, Buckingham House,, Buffalo Jump,
Buffalo Lake Historically Buffalo Lake was a noted place for buffalo hunters back to the earliest times of man in Alberta. From the Buffalo Lake area comes the Fewkes Point, a variant of the Clovis and Folsom fluted point tradition. These points seem to be found only in the Buffalo Lake area, suggesting the existence of a distinct band of hunters that made this area their home around 8,000 B.C.. Also along the lake and to the north in the Battle River Basin are to be found a Battle Axe people, archaeological sites in this area yielding numerous stone axe-heads, including some near-identical specimins. This again suggests that a distinct group made this their home at an as-yet unknown date. Here also are to be found the only known atlatl points (to date) that exhibit characteristics of both the Pelican Lake and Besant points, suggesting a date of around 500-0 B.C. In late historic times it became a center for buffalo hunters (see Boss Hill, above).
Buffalo Pound Cr., Bullhorn Coulee, Bullpound Creek Buffalo Jump, Burial Mounds A Unique site located in the Battle River basin. Consisting of 3 Burial mounds (2 round mounds and 1 flat-toped rectangular mound), 1 burial platform and a number of tipi rings. Yes, I know that burial mounds do not exist in Alberta, according to popular wisdom. The burial platform and rings dating to pre 1800. The mounds, surrounded by shallow ditching, probably dating to the historic period, possibly to the 1860 or 1870 epidemcs, when several thousand persons were known to have died in this area. Located in 2009 by the author. There are several others in the province. This is actually one of several Mississippian Temple Mound Culture ceremonial sites/villages in Alberta which have not previously been reported on. Burnt Timber Cr. CCC Cache Lake, Cactus Flower Calgary Carcajou, Cardinal R., Cardston Buffalo Jump Cataract Creek, Chain Lakes, Child's Lake, Chiniki Lakes Clearwater Pass, Cline R., Cluny, Cluny Earthlodge Village, Coal Valley, Coaldale, Coalspur Cobble Field An interesting and unexplained site in northwestern Alberta consisting of a learing of about 1.5 acres covered with cobbles that appear to be marked with idiograms, drawings and glyphs. First reported to my by a native hunter who had come across the site while firefighting. Located and confirmed 1989. Cold Lake, Cormie Ranch, Coronation, Cougar Canyon, Cranford, Cree/Blackfoot Battle Site 1865 Location of a historic recorded battle (not the Lethbridge Battle site). Location found by the author in 2009. Several graves and signs of tipi rings and some human bone. Cree Burn Lake Site, Cremona more, Cremona Buffalo Pounds, Cremona-Sundre more, Crowsnest Pass, Cypress Hills DDD Deadman Hills, Death Valley Cr., Derwent Buffalo Pound, Devon, DhOx-12, DiOs-24, Dinosaur Provincial Park, DlPd-3, Donalda Buffalo Pound Best in the west. Found in 2010 by the author. publication, Donalda Colony, Donalda Site An interesting composite site at Donalda that epitomises the cultural history of the area. The site sports a virtually complete cultural assemblage from before 1670 A.D. on to the present, including evidence of North West Mounted Police usage. Unfortunately, it is a badly disturbed site with little or no real depth, and materials at the site include trucked-in fill that makes it impossible to determine if some of the early materials actually came from this site. Driedmeat Lake, Drumheller Mine Roman coins found in a Drumheller coal mine. Dry Island Buffalo Jump Is not. But it is interesting in that it lays on the old Dry Island Crossing of the Red Deer River. Duckett, Duhamel EEE Eaglenest Lake In the Birch Mountains. A large seasonal campsite that shows the normal seasonal activities of thes group of people who lived in this area. Believed to date to around or pre 1650. Eastern Alberta Transmission Line, Edberg Hill, Eden Valley, Edmonton, Edmonton 111 st. Burial 2008 Jan; CAN/AB, Edmonton; 111 st. Burial done to the same standard as burial excavations done by George Bryce, Henry Montgomery and others in regards to the Manitoba burial mounds in the 1880's, and which were subsequently censured as how not to conduct burial excavations. EdPp-4, EdPn-23, 24, EdPo-9, 14, EdPq-6, EdPr-32 EePj-3, EePj-4, EePl-9, 94-99, EePp-18 EfPk-1, EfPk-2, EfPl-1F, EfPm-35, EfPm-37, EfPm-41, EfPm-42, EfPm-50 EfPs-1F EgPm-1F, 2F, EgPn-3, EgPp-25, EgPs-1F 1858 Cree Camp, 1865 Battle Site EiPo-1, EiPo-2, EiPo-3, EiPo-4, EiPo-5, EiPo-6, EiPo-7, EiPo-8 EiPq-1, EiPq-2 EjPo-1, EjPo-38, EjPo-67, EjPo-68, EjPp-20, 21, EjPp-26, EjPp-27, EjPq-1, EjPq-7, EjPq-9, EjPq-10, EjPq-13 EkPq-1, 2, Elbow Pass, Elbow R., Elbow River Buffalo Jump, Elinore Lake Cemetery, Ellis Medicine Wheel, Enemy's Buffalo Jump, Entrance Provincial Park, EPP 1973 survey, EoPm-1F EqPn-1F, EqQw-1 FFF Fallentimber Cr., FaPp-1, Fat Buffalo Jump, Ferintosh, FbOv-1/49, Ferry Point FiPn-100, FiQk-3, FiQk-9, FiQp-10 FjPr, FjQk-11, FjQl, FjQl-3, FjQl-9, FjQl-11, FjQn-1 Fletcher Site, FlPs-, FM Buffalo Jump This site was excavated by the author in 1973, a rather typical buffalo jump and campsite east of Calgary. A unique feature was the finding of a buffalo skull showing a healed wound. The wound consisted of a sliver of bone shaved off the forehead. The sliver was never completely detached, and re-healed. Forensic analysis indicated that the wound was made by a sharp metal tool with a curved blade (i.e., like a thin axe), and the 'axe' became embeded (stuck) in the bone. However, the skull dates to around 1,000 A.D. - a time when the only metal axes were in the hands of Vikings on the east coast. So who whacked the buffalo, and where? Since the blow did not kill the buffalo, whoever swung the 'axe' most have had one pissed-off buffalo on his hands. (The skull was written up in The Mystery Skull, Golden West magazine. Ft. Aspin, Ft. Chipewyan, Ft. Edmonton # 2, Ft. Edmonton # 5, Ft. George, Ft. Macleod, Ft. McKay, Ft. McMurray, Ft. Vermilion Burial, Ft. Vermilion Experimental Station, Ft. Vermilion #3, Ft. Victoria, Fox Island (see Black Fox Island) GGG GbOr-1G, GbOr-2, GbOr-3G, GbOr-100, GbOr-600, GbOr-601, GbOr-602, GbOr-603, GcPq-1, Georgetown, GeOx-1, GePa-23, GePa-24, GgQt-1, Ghost Buffalo Jump, Ghost R., GhQs-1, GhQs-2, GiQs-1, GnQs-1, Grand Prairie, Grand Forks, Grand Rapids Pipeline, Grassi Canyon, Grassi Lakes, Graveyard Camp, Graveyard Lake, Grease Creek, Grease Pound, Greenwich Ho., Grotto Canyon, Gull Lake HHH Hanna Culture, Hardisty, Hardisty Buffalo Jump, Harlech, Hawkwood, HbQh-1, Head Smashed In Buffalo Jump This, of course, is the pre-eminent archaeological site in Alberta and a World Heritage Site. Significant because it shows all the classical features of a Buffalo Jump. It has the longest record of use by any Buffalo Jump, extending over a period of 5,000 years. Deposits are 50 feet deep, extending down into the water table. During the excavation period we actually got a grant for digging a well. Heifer Lake One of the last actual standing archaeological sites in Alberta. When I visited it in the 1960's it still had standing tipi frames (such can still be found in remote parts of Alberta, and a rotting sheaf of arrows. High River Skeleton of a Polar Bear excavated near here. He had syphilis. Highway 16 Log Cabin Survey (1973), Highway 947 Extention, Highwood Burial, Highwood Pass, Highwood R., HkQl-1, Hoadley Last buffalo known to have been killed just NE of the village in 1880. In 1920 the remains were dug up by the landowner exactly where the old man had said they would be. Horn Hill, House River Cemetery, Hummel III IcQa-1, Indian Cabins The last known tree burial in Alberta, dating to the 1950's. Indian Trails Ranch, Iron Cr. Sundance JJJ Jarvis Lake, Jasper House, Jenkin's Buffalo Jump, Joachim's Flats More a historic site. A historic cemetery containing burials of the Indians who had been expelled from their homesteads in Jasper National Park in 1911 to create the park. When re-discoverd, it was badly overgrown. Subsequently it was restored by locak Forest Rangers, who maintain it to this day. It is one of the many many unprotected cemeteries in Alberta which, unlike any other jures- diction in the world, does not protect historic cemeteries. (see also the Rossdale Site, below) Joachim's Flats Ceremonial Area, Judy Cr., Jumpingpound Cr., Jumpingpound Cr. Buffalo Jump, Junction, Junction Cr. KKK Kananaskis Lakes One of three major quarry sites to be found in Alberta. Located in our 1973 Archaeological Survey of the Highwood River and Kananaskis Lakes. Yielded something like 40,000 artifacts (mostly primary and secondary debitage, from the distinctive black (Exshaw) limestone of the front ranges. Kananaskis R., Karpinsky, Keg R. HBC, Ki Anan Askis' (Kananaskis') Family Burial, King Creek, Kootenay Plains, Kootenay Plains Sundance Site, Kootenay Plains Vision Quest Sites LLL Lac La Biche, Lac La Biche HBC Po., Lac Lemay, Lake Abraham, Lake Minnewanka, Lake Saskatoon, Lamerton, Lampman Valley Buffalo Jump, Lesser Slave Lake, Limestone Mountain, Little Grave Flats, Little Red Deer River, Lloyd Creek A sacred artesian spring adjacent to the Stoney Trail. In 1882 a adjacent boulder was inscribed 'HOLY WATER', reputedly by Father Lacombe. In 1920's still visible and photographed. Today no longer visible but spring still exists. First homestead in Blindman valley, 1880's. Located in 2011 Longview Hill, Lower Terre Blanche House MMM Mackenzie's Flats At Fort Vermilion the local tradition is that Alexander Mackenzie camped here on his trip to the Pacific in 1792. In 1991, in the slanting afternoon sun, we noted shadows of depressions in the gound extending to under some existing buildings. On maping the outlines we found what appeared to be a bastion and a corner of a wall. Madden Buffalo Jump We are happy to be able to report that the Madden Buffalo Jump is still substantially intact and under the protection of the landowner. Madden Coulee Pictographs Recorded in Cree tradition. Saddly the landowner reports that these are now largely faded away and no longer visible. Back in the 1970's they were already barely visible and needed special lenses to capture on film. Majorville Cairn, Manito Ostikwan "God's Head", now known as Devil's Head Mountain. Obviously, if it was an aboriginal God, it has to be a Devil. This is the thumb- shaped mountain visible from Calgary and from 200 miles out onto the plains. It is in the shape of a man's head with long hair, a stripe of war paint on the cheek, and a white 'fluff' feather in his hair. Legend has it that it was a sign sent by God to be a visible reminder that mankind should live in peace. It is the spiritual and geographic heartland of the ASINI WACHI WI INIWAK ("Mountain People"). Anywhere from which you can see MANITO OSTIKWAN you know you are in Mountain People lands. One band of the Mountain People, the Bobtail Band, has not yet adhered to a Treaty. Manito Stone This stone is in fact a meteorite, and at some 500 pounds, the largest metorite found in Canada. It fell, some say, in October of 1809, and it's fall was witnessed by most people on the northwest plains, scouts being sent out to find it's location. It was found Iron Creek (others claim it was carried to Iron Creek), and to the amazement of the scouts, was found to be in the profile of a man's head. Chiefs and spiritual leaders proclaimed that it was a sign from God to remind mankind of the unity of man and to keep the peace between all peoples. It became the location for annual gatherings (a Cree tribal gathering being held there in 1810) of the varioius tribes who would meet here in peace. In 1867 the meteorite was stolen by Reverend George McDougall, who built it into the foundation of his church - annoyed that more people were going to these meetings and to Sun Dances than to his church. It failed singularly to attract devotees, the Indians believing that the removal of the stone was sacrilage and portended disaster for the First Nations. On the heels of the removal of the stone war broke out between the Cree and Blackfoot, followed by a massive epidemic, all of which were to last 4 years (a sacred number), at the end of which McDougall's mission was deemed a failure and abandoned. McDougall gave away the Manito Stone (not his to take or give) to the National Museum which, in time, turned it over to the Provincial Museum of Alberta. There it resides today, buried in the Geology collection, no longer available to the aboriginal community. Mansfield House, Many Spotted Horses Medicine Wheel, Marie's Maul, Maskepetoon's (Maski Pitonew's) Vision Quest, Meadowvale, Mecca Glenn, Medicine Hat Site Pebble and cobble tools found in a geologic formation dating to around 150,000 years ago. The site has been poo-poo'd by most traditional archaeologists in North America. Richard Leaky (of early man archaeology fame in Africa) looked at the site and the materials and stated that he had no doubts that these were in fact tools and signs of early man, that if they were found in Africa they would be considered as actual evidence of early man at that time. Medicine Hills (Medicine Lodge Hills) One of the most sacred aboriginal areas on the Northwest Plains. According to legend, the location of the last time God came to visit mankind, at the end of the glacial period, and the place from which the Indian peoples dispersed to become seperate tribes. According to legend, God gave each of the families a parting gift (as well as the gift of the Rainbow as his pledge to mankind). A number of tribes still retain these gifts as sacred tribal property. The location of numerous sites of spiritual and religious importance to the local aboriginal peoples. These sites include a sacred spring (which at one time had been paved with sandstone blocks by the people), several Spirit sites, graves of past chiefs, and vision quest sites. There are historic connections of this place with known historic figures and events. Two crude but highly polished hand-axes were found here, indications being that they are of very old age. They were ceremonially re-interred at the site to protect them and the site. Several years ago it was proposed to drill several wells in this area and to run some pipelines through the sites. Several aboriginal groups filed objections with the approving agency, the Alberta Energy Resouces Conservation Board; the objections were denied by the ERCB on the grounds that: - Aboriginal peoples had no rights or interests regarding these sites. - The ERCB is the sole arbitrer of what constitutes sites of aboriginal importance. - The ERCB is the sole arbitrer of what aboriginal groups have a right to file an objection. - The ERCB is the sole arbitrer of who has the rights to file an objection of the behalf of an aboriginal group. This in spite of the fact that these sites are located in the lands of an aboriginal First Nation that has never signed a Treaty or surrendered their lands. The ERCB further went on to state that it participates in compre- hensive consultation with aboriginal groups, in spite of the fact that EVERY aboriginal group in central and northern Alberta has denied that the ERCB has EVER consulted with them. The only form of 'consultation' being in the form of having to take the ERCB to the Supreme Court of Canada for it's infringements on aboriginal rights and properties - such as in the Oilsands development - (as is being done as of this writing by the Beaver Lake First Nation, and in process by the Mikisiw First Nation, Athabasca Tribal Council and Treaty 8 Alliance. To the credit of OMERS ENERGY, they declared that they would drop plans to drill in the most revered part of the Medicine Hills, though there are still concerns that drilling in the area might damage the Sacred Spring, and that one proposed pipeline passes perilously close to several sites. The legality of the ECRB position was challanged by the author in Joachim Fromhold v. Energy Resources Conservation Board, where the ERCB position was struck down. The ERCB must now make accomodation to address the rights as affirmed in this case. (For more detail see Cultual and Religious Rights See also: Medicine Hills: Sacred Ground Heritage Resources Mismanagement Issues Save Our Sacred Sites Medicine Hills Vision Quest, Medicine Hills Pre-Lithic, Medicine River, Medicine River Settlement (1870's), Medicine River Sundance, Meeting Creek, Meeting Creek Buffalo Jump, Meeting Creek Cree Camp (1858), Men's Buffalo Jump, Milo Cairn, Mistasini, Moose Lake, Morkin Moundbuilder Sites In recent years some 12 Moundbuilder sites have been identified in central Alberta with Burial Mounds, Pyramid Mounds and Temple Mounds. These are the only Moundbuilder settlements reported to date in Canada, 1000 km. from the Temple Mound Culture heartland. More More
Mountain Park, Mud Head Buffalo Jump, Mystic Cave Pictographs NNN Narrows Site, Nitchi Cr., Nordegg, North Saskatchewan River, Nose Creek OOO Okotok Erratic The Okotok Erratic, west of Okotok, is perhaps the most prominent of the glacial erratics to be found in western Alberta, and is tied in with aboriginal myth and legend. Historically it was considered as a site of religious importance, not as a religious icon, but as a Spirit place, as is the case with other such large erratics, or MISTAHI ASINI. In the 1890's attempts were made to destroy the Okotoks Erratic with dynamite. Although they succeeded in breaking the erratic into 3 sections, it proved too resilient, and the attempt was abandoned. Okotoks, Old Bow Fort, Old Entrance, Old Establishment, Old Women's Buffalo Jump Outlet Creek PPP Pakakos Effigy Petroglyph Pakowki, Peace Point, Peace R.: North Peace Historic Sites Pearman Farm, Peigan Po., Pembian Provincial Park, Pheasant Pound, Pipestone Creek, Pipestone Pass, Porcupine Hills, Porcupine's Tail Buffalo Jump, Pretty Hill QQQ Quaiffe Creek RRR Rainy Creek Once part of the Medicine Hills religious area, the creek is the location of a number of spiritual/religious sites, Spirit sites, and a Sacred Spring. Historically it has been the source of many archaeological sites and artifacts. The old Buffalo Trail passed from the Kootenay Plains to the Buffalo Plains passed along the creek. Ramillies Pound, Rat Creek, Red Deer North, Red Deer Lake Ho., Red Deer R., Ribstones Site Large boulders, each weighing several tons, on Ribstone Creek carved into the form of a buffalo body, showing ribs of the chest. Once the site of annual gatherings. They have since been stolen - although supposedly a protected site. Rocky Lane, Rocky Rapids, Rosebud River Buffalo Jump, Ross, Ross Glen, Rossdale, Roy Rivers Medicine Wheel, RWMC Burial Grounds SSS Salter Cr., Sarcee Butte, Saskatoon Lake, Scalp Cr., Sheep Cr., Sheep R., Shunda Cr., Sharphead Band Cemetery, Shaw's Point, Shuswap Winter Kikwuli, Sibbald, Siffleur R., Silver Creek Ranch Site, Skull Rock, Skunk Hollow, Smythe Buffalo Pound, Spotted Creek Camp (1867), Stalker Site, Stampede Site, Stanford Buffalo Jump, Staveley, Steen R., Stettler, Stoney Lake, Strathcona Heights Site, Sturgeon River Buffalo Pound, Sundial Butte, Sundre, Sunset Hill, Sunset Pass TTT Taber, Taber Child A site that yielded the remains of a child, originally believed to date to over 40,000 years ago. It has been hotly debated ever since by those who refuse to believe that Indians were here that long ago. (back in the 1970's it was still taught that Indians had been here at most 1,500 years, and diehards are still around who refuse to accept early dates). Tail Creek The biggest town west of Red River in the 1870's. During this decade buffalo hunters congregated in the Buffalo Lake area, establishing a settlement at Tail Creek. Not as populous as Boss Hill, it did boast 400 cabins, a Hudson's Bay post, a Mounted Police post and several independent traders. From here buffalo robes were hauled by Red River cart to Fort Benton in Montana (the HBCo not buying buffalo robes). With the extinction of the buffalo the town was largely abandoned but never really died. In 1881 a Cree family from Victoria settlement established the first Road House/Inn/Hotel outside Edmonton in Alberta at Tail Creek, operating it until their deaths in 1911. The last residents are buried at Tail Creek Cemetery, about 4 km. SE of the townsite. The cemetery was maintained by local farm families for some time but as they moved away or died out the cemetery became derelict. By 1970 it was overgrown, but in recent years has been maintained by the Metis Nation of Alberta. Nothing - not a trace - can be found of the old settlement today. Thorsby, Three Pounds, Trans-Mountain Pipeline: Winterburn-Wabamun, Two O'Clock Cr., Two Hills, Two Trees Site UUU VVV Vermilion Pound, Vermilion Lakes The first habitations/tents known to have existed in Alberta. A Clovis site, dating back to around 10,000 years ago, when ice still covered most of Alberta. A well-defined campsite. Vermilion Pass, Victoria, Victoria Glacier, Victoria Po., Viking, Vilna, Visionquest Ridge (1), Visionquest Ridge (2) WWW Wabamun Lake, Wanham, Wapiabi, Waterton N.P., Welch Creek, Wentzek K, Where We Smash Their Heads in the Mud Buffalo Jump, Whirlpool Point, Whiterabbit R., Whitford Lake A burial site used from 500 AD to 1650 A.D., perhaps longer. The last known burial there was in 1905. The site was actually an Ossuary, a place of mass burials, and part of the Feast of The Dead ceremonialisms once practiced by the Cree and other Algonkian peoples. I is a direct descendant of a similar Ossuary at Swift Current (and other places not yet publicly revealed) which was in use from 2,000 B.C. to 500 A.D. These ossuaries were places where the tribe would gather for a tribal renewal. Here families would bring the remains of their departed to be re-buried in a common grave with their other kinsmen. (see our Cree Burial Practices report). The Whitford Lake Ossuary is known to be of Cree affiliation, suggesting that the Cree had been in this area for centuries.
CREE BURIAL PRACTICES - History and Ethos; Report prepared for the Alberta Human Rights and Citizenship Commission Copy available from Heritage Consulting $5.00

Wildcat Buffalo Jump, Willisden Green, Willow Cr., Wilson Creek, Windy Point, Wintering Hills, Women's Buffalo Jump, Writing on Stone XXX YYY Yahatinda ZZZ Zephyr Cr. HERITAGE RESOUCES CONSERVATION BOARD MISMANAGEMENT "Salvage archaeologists - gleaners as they are called - work behind, around and ahead of the bulldozers..." (National Geographics 1982 162:1:1) Aboriginal Laws The Heritage Resources Management Board and Archaelogical Survey of Alberta (HRMB/ASA) is essentially a shill for corporate developers. Instead of protection of heritage sites they are there to minimize the inconvenience to developers who want to develop on such sites. This is especially true where it pertains to aboriginal sites. In Alberta, Historic burials, graves and cemeteries are not protected. HRMB/ASA routinely permit excavation and development of known burial areas. Grave Flats, Richie Cemetery, Rossdale Cemetery and Sharphead Cemetery are the most gross violations. At Sharphead HRMB has authorized trenching through the burials three times in the last 50 years, destroying 60 graves. At Grave Flats they authorized gravel crushing, with remains reportedly going through the crusher. At Rossdale they have repreatedly authorized development on over 200 graves. Rossdale and other sites they have authorized dumping of the remains from burials in landfills. The HRMB has gone on record saying that 'there are only 3 known historic aboriginal burials in Alberta', and that the HRMB 'has no responsibility for and does not want responsibility for historic burials and aboriginal sites', while still claiming to have ownership of the artifacts in those sites. They tend to refer to archaeology of sites dealing with historical and aboriginal history as "Histerical Archaeology". In the Medicine Hills, Rainy Creek and other areas the HRMB has told developers that "there are no sites of historical importance" in the area, hence archaeological assessment and mitigation would not be required. For those of you who are familiar with the Medicine Hills and Rainy Creek history (you can find it on our databank files), you will know that this is a gross lie. The Medicine Hills are one of the most important cultural/historic locations in Alberta to Aboriginal history, containing hundreds of sites and burials, including the legendary location of the last visit by God/Great Spirit to mankind. Rainy Creek was the historic crossing of two major trails that were in use for thousands of years; sites and burials are scattered through- out. Both locations are covered in hundreds of early journal documents. Of course, the HRMB/ASA staff are virtually totally ignorant of the history, ethnology and culture of Alberta aboriginal peoples. Unless they would happen to find some stone artifacts at aboriginal heritage sites, they wouldn't know what they were if they fell into one. None of the provincial archaeologists are able to identify sites of aboriginal spiritual/cultural importance. They have no clue what a PAKAKOS Site, or other sites, refer to, and could not identify a Shrine if they stood on top of one. An 'Plains Archaeologist' from HRMB/ASA was unable to identify a Sundance Lodge, standing in front of it. At Rossdale the archaeologists were unable to identify PUTRINE, a distinctive white organic remain left behind by decomposing flesh. When it was pointed out to them they refused to believe of the existence of such materials. Refusing to even analyze the material they simply ruled that these were not burials. PUTRINE is very distinctive and leaves a distinctive ground pattern remain. In almost no instance where a historic grave is uncovered is there any attempt to identify the remains. In a recent case (111 st. Burial, Edmonton) where we felt there was cause to investigate and assure that the remains were suitably re-intered in a culturally appropriate way, permission to examine the remains was denied. Subsequently the HRMB/ASA assured us that it was the burial of a settler after 1920. When we pointed out that a) the remains we saw from the burial indicated a pre 1900 burial and b) the remains came from an old Indian Reserve that still had residents into the 1900's the HRMB/ASA assured us that it was the remains of "an eastern European woman". When we requested what evidence there was for such a claim, and how they could determine "eastern European" from any other European, Euro-Canadian, Metis or Indian remains? The answer? There was a single eyelet from a shoe found in the remains, and Indians did not wear shoes! At this point we pointed out that Indian peoples from this area are shown in photographic evidence as early as 1850 as wearing shoes, a number of aboriginal locals had spent years in England and eastern Canadian/US cities, and a single eyelet is no means of identification. We submitted a list of very specific questions about the burial, and a copy of the archaeological report. Turns out there was no report. We received one a year and a half later attempting to answer the questions we had posed. In the report the archaeologists in charge stated that HE WAS NOT PERMITTED TO EXAMINE, ANALYZE OR IDENTIFY THE REMAINS and that other restraints imposed by HRMB/ASA prevented him from doing as thorough a job as he would have liked. In the meantime the remains had been carted off - some to a landfill. Our own research indicated that the burial was 100% aboriginal and Cree, and that the individual was probably (95%) Catherine Hope - a family with many descendants still in the area. We have since inquired into how and where the remains were interred and have been stonewalled for the past year. Were the remains sent to a landfill? Were they just dumped into a hole? Were they put in a lard pail? Are they on some basement shelf? Was there any appropriate religious service? One thing is certain; the treatment of the remains were in no way respectful, and they were not re-intered in manner appropriate to the Cree/Metis culture. As it stands, this burial was done to the same standard as burial excavations done by George Bryce, Henry Montgomery and others in regards to the Manitoba burial mounds in the 1880's, and which were subsequently censured as how not to conduct burial excavations. In Canada "Causing indignity to human remains" is a crime. Should not the HRMB/ASA be prosecuted? "Every human being should have a name and be known by that name." re: Sidney Goodwin, the "Unknown Child" from the Titanic, for who's identity considerable resources were spent, finalized by DNA testing. To help protect historic, heritage and cultural sites, visit Save Our Sacred Sites GRANDFATHER TREES/HERITAGE TREES 111 St. Burial Report PHOTO DOCUMENTARY OF HISTORIC ALBERTA GRAVES AND BURIALS; Heritage Consulting; J. Fromhold; 2009 copy online SASKATCHEWAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES LISTING Arborfield, Arden, Armit R., Arran, Avonlea Barken-Wright, Beaver Hills, Besant Valley, Big Beaver, Bjorkdale, Black Lake, Bluefields West, Boissevain, Bromhead Cabri, Cabri Lake, Canoe Channel Pictographs, Carberry, Carrot R., Chipman R., Chesterfield Ho., Churchill R., Clarkboro, Clearwater Lake, Coteau Cr., Cowan's Beach, Cree Bay, Cree Lake, Cree R., Crooked Lakes, Crowstand Effigy, Cypress Hills Darcy, Deep Bay, Derr-Drew, Diefenbaker Lake, Duck Mountain Fort, Duncan Eagle Hills, Ensor, Estuary Bison Trap Fond Du Lac R., Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt, Fox Island Pictographs Garratt, GkNp-2, Glen Ewen, Gouldtown, Gow Lake, Gowen, Great Sand Hills, Grey Burial Site Halbrite, Harderm HbMt-1, HcMt-4, HcMt-6, HdMs-1, HdMt-1, HeMr-1, Herschel, Hickson Lake, Hugo Dosch Jackfish Lake Key Lake, Kyle Lake Athabasca, Lake Midden, Last Mountain Lake, Lawrence Bay, Leader, Lebret, Long Cr. Marchand Lake, Masinahikan Sipis, McCallum, McCord, McKean, Melfort, Melita, Melville, Meota, Middle Lake, Midwest Lake, Minton, Mistassini, Moon Lake, Moose Bay, Moose Mountain Medicine Wheel, Mortlach Nipawin, Noon Lake, Norbet Site, Numabin Bay Old Dam, Onion Lake, Oxbow Dam Parkhill, Pathlow, Pelican Lake, Pipestone Cr., Pipestone R., Porcupine Plain, Poundmaker, Prelat Red Deer R., Red Ochre Hills, Regina, Reindeer Lake, Reindeer Lake Cr., Reindeer R., Riverhurst, Roche Perce, Rock Haven, Roseray St. Louis, St. Victor, Sandfly Lake, Saskatoon, Shaunavon, Silent Rapid, Sjovold, Snake Indian Rock, Stackhouse Bay Pictographs, Stanley Mission Pictographs, Standing Stones, Sturgeon Weir R., Swan R., Swift Current, Swift Current Cr. Thunderbird Bay, Tipperary Cr. Ulricksen Walter Felt Buffalo Jump, Wanuskewan, Weyburn, Wollaston Lake, Woodrow Yorkton UKRAINIAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES LISTING Below is a listing of Archaeological Sites in the Ukraine for which information is on file. A listing for site information from other areas is not yet posted on Internet. Beloarka, Belozerka, Bolshaya, Chertomlyk, Crimea Dniepropetrobsk, Dort Oba Gaimanova Mogila, Geremsov Ilyintsi, Ilytchevo Kelermes, Khutor Poporka, Kostromskaya, Krazny Kut, Kuban, Kul Oba Kurdzhipsky Melgunov Novorozanovka, Nymphaea Ordzhonikidze, Ostraya Moglia Poltava Sanitsa Kelermesskaya, Shuchuchinka, Sem'bratiev, Seven Brothers Solokha, Staikin Verkh, Stanitsa Dahkovskoya Tolstoya Mogila, Tomakove Vinnitsa, Volkovtsi Zaporozhye THE LATE HISTORIC BEER BOTTLE CULTURE The tyypological concept and typological dating - dating of objects and the culture they are associated with by stylistic changes in an artifact or assemblage - has long been a well known technique. It has had especially important usage in the field of pottery, the best known usage being in the associations with chinese dynasties. It has also had considerable importance in North America in the typological identification of projectile points and the resultant identification and classification of presumed associated 'Cultures'. Admittedly, because of the large number of variations - regionally and even locally - with a marked lack of supporting research, much of this still remains hypothetical. One of the best examples of how typological classification can assist in cultural identification is in the case of the Late Prehistoric European 'Beaker People'. Based on the 'beaker' pottery, considerable reconstruction has been possible regarding origins, migration, occupations and cultural behaviors of these peoples. In Late Historic North America we find a similar phenomenon - the Beer Bottle Culture. Although this period is marked with immense amounts of broken glass, littereally paving some areas, the Beer Bottle stands out for its distinctiveness and lasting continuety over several decades. It is characterized by a brown glass, the bottle itself going through several relatively rapid stylistic changes that allow us to narrow down dating the samples virtually by decade. It has the further great advantage of being almost 'universal', found from the highest mountain tops to Arctic islands to the urban heartland. Most densely it is found in the urban heartland, as might be expected for an item of universal usage. The very fact that the beer bottle has such universal distribution suggests it held a very prominent place in the prevailaing culture, likely of religious and ceremonial import. Stylistic change allows us to make some pertinent observations about the culture. The beer bottle appeared around the beginning of the 20th century in Europe, but reached it's highest development in North America. Here it exploded both in number and complexity around the middle of the century, expanding outwards from the Great Lakes-Atlantic seaboard area. This suggests that the culture was imported from Europe and developed into something akin to a religion in North America. Stylistically, we can see that there were two main branches of this culture, divided roughly by a line running east-west from the St. Lawrence to the Pacific. North of that line we find both a different stylistic tradition and smaller quantities of remains. Clearly this indicates that a minorty cultural stream developed among a related peoples that split off from the main body. Since remains are more sparse in this region it suggests that it never developed the same following as a religion as the mainstream. An alternate explanation is that there was a smaller population in this area, which would have been unlikely considering that there are no natural east-west barriers seperating the two areas west of the Great Lakes until encountering the boreal forest zone further to the north. As with the Steppe cultures of Eurasia, this culture made no significant inroads into the boreal forest of the north, except in isolated trading centers. Let us look a little closer at the 'Northern Tradition' of the Beer Bottle Culture. Stylistically, the bottles passed through several phases. Initially the bottles emerged out of the hand-blown technological phase of standard bottle design. By mid-century they had standardized to a smaller version of this, to be a shouldered bottle with about 40% consisting of a neck with a bulbous expansion towards the distal end. This was a standard form for several decades, when for an unexplained reason it changed to a neckless bottle for a little over a decade and then changing to a conical-necked bottle before returning to a traditional style. Minor variations existed for various lengths of time throughout. Interestingly the 'later traditional' version was of a somewhat smaller content size than the original form. From the changes in style we can postulate some culturally relevant factors. Why the change to a neckless bottle remains a mystery at this time. Possibly it indicates a change in distribution and storage techniques. More likely it indicates a shift in the cultural psychology of the time, indicating a desire to break away from cultural tradition, possibly even an attempt at wholsale cultural change. Possibly it was adopted as a visible manifest to demonstrate the difference between the Northern Tradition and the Southern Tradition. That it reverted within one generation shows that the attempted cultural shift did not succede. The return to a traditional styling indicates a yearning to return to the traditional forms of the culture - perhaps even a reactionary cultural response to the prevailing direction the culture was going in. A minor divergence from the mainstream of the Northern Culture might be worth taking a closer look at, which we might be able to call the Heidelberg Heresy. For a short time there existed a parallel independent stream that retained a distinctive bottle, sometimes marked Heidelberg. These tended to be more stubby and globular, with a darker glass and a conical neck. This independent stream (a Sect?) existed pricipally during the time of the neckless bottle and disappeared shortly after the disappearance of the neckless bottle. One can postulate that this was a cultural response, perhaps reactionary, to the philosophies that were behind the inception of the neckless bottle. The very name 'Heidelberg', a medieval place in Germany, suggests that there was here an attempt to create a link with the past and past traditions. It would also tend to confirm an at least 'perceived' origin of the Beer Bottle Culture in European roots. That the neckless bottle was supplanted with a traditional style bottle but with a conical 'Heidleberg' neck and subsequent disappearance of the Heidelberg Bottle would indicate that there was a re-integration of these two cultural streams. What the significance is of the final smaller 'traditional' bottle is unknown. Presumably it indicatres a cultural shift but it remains unknown what this shift was. Was there a scarcity of material? A shift in technology? A need for greater distribution of a scarce product? An attempt to maintain lower per-item cost? A cultural shift towards 'small is good' attitudes? or a capitalist ploy to increase revenues? At present this question will have to await clarification at some future date.

718 - TOM OJO - CANADA 1-403-885-2991
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TRAILS ALBERTA TRAILS BRITISH COLUMBIA TRAILS MANITOBA TRAILS SASKATCHEWAN TRAILS ALBERTA TRAILS Cremona-Sundre Area; Major Trails (Fromhold 1972) Significan Publications Trail Studies Land Use Studies
AAA ALEXANDRIA RIVER TRAIL ALLENBY TRAIL ASSINIBOIN ROAD ASSINIBOIN TRAIL ATHABASCA RIVER ATHABASCA TRAIL AURORA CREEK TRAIL AYLMER TRAIL BBB BAPTISTE RIVER TRAIL BATTLE RIVER TRAIL BATTLE RIVER-SOURIS RIVER CORRIDOR BEAR HILLS TRAIL BESS PASS TRAIL BERLAND TRAIL BIG FISH TRAIL BIGHORN TRAIL (1) BIGHORN TRAIL (2) BLACKFALDS-BUCK LAKE TRAIL BLACKFOOT TRAIL BOW PASS TRAIL BOW RIVER TRAIL BRAZEAU LAKE TRAIL BRAZEAU BYPASS TRAIL BRAZEAU RIVER TRAIL BRIGADE TRAIL BUFFALO TRAIL BUFFALO LAKE TRAIL CCC CALGARY & EDMONTON TRAIL CALGARY & RED RIVER TRAIL CALLING LAKE TRAIL CARDINAL TRAIL CARLTON TRAIL CATARACT CREEK TRAIL CHALMERS TRAIL CHUNGO CREEK TRAIL CLEARWATER RIVER ROUTE CLEARWATER RIVER TRAIL CLINE RIVER TRAIL CLINE'S TRAIL COLVILLE TRAIL CREE TRAIL CROWSNEST PASS TRAIL DDD EEE EDMONTON-ISLE A LA CROSSE TRAIL EDMONTON-JASPER TRAIL EDMONTON-FT. CARLTON TRAIL EDMONTON-FT. PITT TRAIL EDMONTON-NORTH BATTLEFORD TRAIL EDMONTON-PAINT CREEK HOUSE TRAIL EDMONTON-PIGEON LAKE TRAIL EDMONTON-RED RIVER TRAIL EDMONTON-REGINA TRAIL EDMONTON-ROCKY MOUNTAIN HOUSE EDMONTON-SLAVE LAKE EDMONTON-SWIFT CURRENT ELK PASS TRAIL ELK RIVER TRAIL ESKER TRAIL EVANS-THOMAS CREEK TRAIL FFF FIRE CREEK TRAIL FOLEY TRAIL FORBIDDEN CREEK TRAIL FORT ASSINIBOIN TRAIL FORT CHIPEWYAN FORT MACLEOD TRAIL FORT MACLEOD-GEICHEN TRAIL FORT MACLEOD-LETHBRIDGE TRAIL FORT MACLEOD-WATERTON TRAIL FORT McMURRAY-LAC LA BICHE TRAIL FORT NELSON TRAIL FORT PITT-CYPRESS HILLS TRAIL FORT PITT-EDMONTON TRAIL FORT PITT-SADDLE LAKE TRAIL FORT VERMILION TRAIL FORT VERMILION-HOUSE RIVER TRAIL FORT WALSH TRAIL FORT WHOOP-UP TRAIL FREEMAN RIVER TRAIL GGG GRAHAM TRAIL GRANDE PRAIRIE-DUNVEGAN TRAIL GRANDE PRAIRIE-POUCE COUPE TRAIL GREASE CREEK TRAIL GROUARD TRAIL HHH HAY LAKES CART TRAIL HAY LAKES-CLEAR HILLS TRIAL HAY LAKES-DOIG RIVER TRAIL HAY LAKES-FORT NELSON TRAIL HAY LAKES-PETITOT TRAIL HAY LAKES TRAIL HAY RIVER LOOP HEADWATERS TRAIL HEALY PASS TRAIL HIGHWOOD RIVER TRAIL HINTON TRAIL HUDSON'S BAY BRIGADE TRAIL HORSE TRACK TRAIL HOWSE PASS TRAIL HUMMINGBIRD/CANARY/ONION CREEK CIRCUIT TRAILS III INDIAN TRAIL IROQUOIS TRACK JJJ JACKPINE RIVER TRAIL JACQUES CARDINAL TRAIL JASPER TRAIL JOB CREEK/CORAL CREEK TRAIL JUDD'S CROSSING-RED DEER RIVER JUNCTION TRAIL JUMPINGPOUND TRAIL KKK KANANASKIS PACK TRAIL KANANASKIS RIVER TRAIL KANANASKIS TRAIL KICKINGHORSE PASS TRAIL KLONDIKE TRAIL KOOTENAY PASS KOOTENAY PLAINS TRAIL # 1 KOOTENAY PLAINS TRAIL # 2 KUTENAI TRAIL LLL LAC LA BICHE-PEACE RIVER TRAIL LOWER TRAIL LOST GUIDE CANYON TRAIL MMM MACKENZIE TRAIL MALIGNE RIVER TRAIL McDOUGALL'S TRAIL McLEOD RIVER TRAIL McMURRAY TRAIL METHY PORTAGE TRAIL MISTAYA RIVER TRAIL MOBERLY TRAIL MORLEYVILLE TRAIL MONS CHUNGO TRAIL MOOSE PORTAGE TRAIL MOUNTAIN TRAIL NNN NAHANNI TRAIL NAKODA TRAIL NIGEL CREEK TRAIL NORTH BOUNDARY TRAIL NORTH FORK TRAIL NORTH RAM RIVER TRAIL NORTH TRAIL OOO OLD CLINE'S TRAIL OLD NORTH TRAIL OUTLAW TRAIL PPP PEIGAN ROAD PEMBINA RIVER CROSSING PIGEON LAKE TRAIL PIGEON PASS TRAIL PIPESTONE TRAIL PRAIRIE CART TRAIL PRAIRIE CREEK TRAIL PRAIRIE TRAIL PRIMROSE LAKE TRAIL QQQ RRR RAM RIVER TRAIL RANGER CREEK TRAIL RED DEER RIVER JUNCTION ROCKY MOUNTAIN HOUSE TRAIL SSS SADDLE LAKE-BEAVER RIVER PORTAGE TRAIL ST. ALBERT TRAIL SASKATCHEWAN OVERLAND ROUTE SAWBACK TRAIL SHEEP CREEK TRAIL SHEEP RIVER TRAIL SIFFLEUR TRAIL SLAVE INDIAN ROAD SLAVE LAKE TRAIL SMALLPOX TRAIL SMOKY RIVER TRAIL SNAKE INDIAN RIVER TRAIL SOUNDING CREEK TRAIL SOUNDING CREEK-FT. MACLEOD TRAIL SOUNDING CREEK-BEAR HILLS/EDMONTON TRAIL SOUNDING CREEK-VICTORIA TRAIL SOUNDING LAKE-BATTLEFORD TRAIL SOUNDING LAKE-FORT PITT TRAIL SOUNDING LAKE-JUDD'S CROSSING TRAIL SOUNDING LAKE-SULLIVAN LAKE TRAIL SOUNDING LAKE-TRAMPING LAKE TRAIL SOUNDING LAKE-VICTORIA TRAIL SOUTH BOUNDARY TRAIL SOUTH RAM RIVER TRAIL SOUTHESK TRAIL SPIRIT RIVER TRAIL STANDOFF-FT. MACLEOD TRAIL STANDOFF-LEE'S CREEK TRAIL STANDOFF-PEIGAN RESERVE TRAIL STANDOFF-WATERTON TRAIL STONEY CACHE TRAIL STONEY INDIAN TRAIL STONEY TRAIL SUNDRE TRAIL SUNSHINE TRAIL SWAN HILLS TRAIL TTT TAIL CREEK TRAIL TELEGRAPH TRAIL TRAIL OF DEEP SNOW TWO MOUNTAIN TRAIL UUU VVV VICTORIA TRAIL WWW WABASCA TRAIL WHITE MAN PASS TRAIL WHITERABBIT RIVER TRAIL WHOOP-UP TRAIL WHOOP-UP-FT. WALSH TRAIL WHOOP-UP-MEDICINE HAT TRAIL WOLF ROAD WOLF TRACK WONDER TRAIL YYY YELLOWHEAD TRAIL ......................................... : : : : : : : : : .: .....: : :....: ....: : : : .......: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : ..:.....: : : R : : : : : : : :.............: E : : : : : : : : ..:........ . V : : : : : :.R :I: :. : : .: : : : :... : : : : ..@....: : :.A : : :: :: .: :S..C.. : : :: : :.: A ::. ........:...:: : :.. .H..A..B..........@H :S A: S K \ .T : .: ..: ...:T: :..:. .: : \ A. : .:...:O.R.::.:....:.......: \ :.. : N..: E :. ..: : \ :...:...@ E@ : :. ..: : \.:.. : R : :..... : \ : : C : :. :...: \ :..::.@....:.......:.....: \ T: : : \ R : : :: \ A : : : : @ Modern cities \I : :......:@ : |L.:....@.: : \.::................: BRITISH COLUMBIA TRAILS
All Canadian, Ashcroft Bentnick Arm, Boundary Route, Bower Creek, Cadorna Creek, Caribou Hide, Columbia Lake-Kootenay Lake, Columbia River, Colvile, Cutoff Dalton, Dewdney Elk River Fort Connelly-Fort Grahame, Howse Pass, Hudson's Bay Brigade, Hudson's Bay Co. Kamloops- Fort Alexandria, Kettle River, Klondike, Kootenay River, Kootenay Skyway, Moodie's Okanagan Palliser River, Peace River-Yukon, Police Sheep, Stikine Telegraph, Thompson River Vermilion Pass Yellowhead SASKATCHEWAN TRAILS
ATHABASCA TRAIL ATHABASCA-CHURCHILL TRAIL BATOCHE TRAIL BATOCHE-A LA CORNE TRAIL BATOCHE-FILE HILLS TRAIL BATTLE RIVER TRAIL BATTLEFORD-BATTLE RIVER ELBOW TRAIL BATTLEFORD-CYPRESS HILLS TRAIL BATTLEFORD-EAGLE HILLS TRAIL BATTLEFORD-FT. CARLTON TRAIL BATTLEFORD-MANITO LAKE TRAIL BATTLEFORD-ONION LAKE TRAIL BATTLEFORD-SOUNDING LAKE TRAIL BATTLEFORD-TRAMPING LAKE TRAIL BIG RIVER TRAIL BLACK RIVER TRAIL CALGARY & RED RIVER TRAIL CARLTON TRAIL CREE LAKE TRAIL CUMBERLAND TRAIL CYPRESS HILLS-BATTLEFORD TRAIL EAGLE CREEK-BATOCHE TRAIL EAGLE CREEK-ELBOW TRAIL EAGLE CREEK-RED DEER RIVER JUNCTION TRAIL EAGLE CREEK-SASKATCHEWAN LANDING TRAIL EAGLE CREEK-TRAMPING LAKE TRAIL EAGLE HILLS TRAIL EAST END TRAIL EDMONTON-FT. CARLTON TRAIL ELBOW/SAND HILLS-LONG LAKE TRAIL ELBOW/SAND HILLS-MOOSE JAW TRAIL ELBOW/SAND HILLS-TOUCHWOOD HILLS TRAIL FILE HILLS-FT. ELLICE TRAIL FILE HILLS-FT. PELLY TRAIL FILE HILLS-LONG LAKE TRAIL FILE HILLS-QU'APPELLE TRAIL FISHING LAKE-TOUCHWOOD HILLS TRAIL FISHING LAKE-WHITE SAND RIVER TRAIL FORT CARLTON-BATOCHE TRAIL FORT CARLTON-GREEN LAKE TRAIL FORT CARLTON-A LA CORNE TRAIL FORT CARLTON-SAND HILLS TRAIL FORT CARLTON-TOUCHWOOD HILLS TRAIL FORT ELLICE-FORT PELLY TRAIL FORT ELLICE-LEECH LAKE TRAIL FORT ELLICE-MOOSE JAW CREEK TRAIL FORT ELLICE-MOOSE MOUNTAIN TRAIL FORT ELLICE-QU'APPELLE TRAIL FORT ELLICE-RED RIVER TRAIL FORT ELLICE-TURTLE MOUNTAIN TRAIL FORT PELLY-RED RIVER TRAIL FORT PELLY-SASKATOON TRAIL FORT PITT-EDMONTON TRAIL FORT PITT-CYPRESS HILLS TRAIL FORT PITT-SADDLE LAKE TRAIL FORT QU'APPELLE TRAIL FORT QU'APPELLE-FT. PELLY TRAIL FORT QU'APPELLE-WOOD MOUNTAIN POST TRAIL 1 FORT QU'APPELLE-WOOD MOUNTAIN POST TRAIL 2 FORT QU'APPELLE-WOOD MOUNTAIN POST TRAIL 3 FORT WALSH-FORT BELKNAP TRAIL FORT WALSH-EAST END TRAIL FORT WALSH-FORT WHOOP-UP TRAIL FORT WALSH-KENNEDY'S POST TRAIL FORT WALSH-OLD WIVE'S LAKE TRAIL FORT WALSH-SWIFT CURRENT TRAIL FRENCHMAN RIVER TRAIL GREEN LAKE TRAIL ISLE A LA CROSSE-CREE LAKE TRAIL PEONAN CREEK TRAIL POUNDMAKER TRAIL PRAIRIE CART TRAIL PRINCE ALBERT-FISHING LAKE TRAIL RED DEER RIVER JUNCTION-BATTLEFORD TRAIL RED DEER RIVER JUNCTION-EAGLE CREEK TRAIL RED DEER RIVER JUNCTION-ELBOW TRAIL RED DEER RIVER JUNCTION-FT. WALSH TRAIL RED DEER RIVER JUNCTION-MAPLE CREEK TRAIL RED DEER RIVER JUNCTION-JUDD'S CROSSING TRAIL RED DEER RIVER JUNCTION-SWIFT CURRENT TRAIL REGINA-EDMONTON TRAIL SOUNDING CREEK SOURIS RIVER-WOOD MTN. POST SWIFT CURRENT-EAST END TRAIL SWIFT CURRENT-ELBOW TRAIL SWIFT CURRENT-MAPLE CREEK TRAIL SWIFT CURRENT-MOOSE JAW TRAIL SWIFT CURRENT-RED DEER RIVER JUNCTION TRAIL SWIFT CURRENT-WHITE MUD RIVER TRAIL THE PASS TRAIL TOUCHWOOD HILLS TRAIL TOUCHWOOD HILLS-ELBOW TRAIL TOUCHWOOD HILLS-BEAVER HILLS TRAIL TOUCHWOOD HILLS-QU'APPELLE TRAIL TRADERS' ROAD TRAMPING LAKE-BATOCHE TRAIL TRAMPING LAKE-BATTLEFORD TRAIL TRAMPING LAKE-CYPRESS HILLS TRAIL TRAMPING LAKE-EAGLE CREEK TRAIL TRAMPING LAKE-FT. CARLTON TRAIL TRAMPING LAKE-SOUNDING LAKE TRAIL WOOD MOUNTAIN-BATTLEFORD TRAIL WOOD MOUNTAIN-FT. ELLICE TRAIL WOOD MOUNTAIN-FT. QU'APPELLE TRAIL WOOD MOUNTAIN-FT. WALSH TRAIL CITY OF RED DEER INSULTS INDIANS Red Deer Breaks Promise to Aboriginals Red Deer Ignores Aboriginal Protocols History of Red Deer and Area Red Deer Perverts Metis & Indian History For the past 10 years Red Deer has been presenting the historic Indian and Metis residents of the Red Deer area has hostile and depraved marauders - which is a world away from the truth. At the Annual Normandeau Days, honoring the building of the fort during the 1885 Rebellion, the stage a Historic Battle between the Indians, Metis, and Militia who occupied Fort Normandeau in 1885. There never was such a battle. For that matter, there was never any such battle anywhere in Alberta, let alone the Red Deer area. The Metis in Red Deer were peaceful homesteaders and businessmen, operating sawmills, stores, inns, and farms. South of town "Indians" had a store near Innisfail, and homesteaders were settling the Innisfail-Bowden area. "Indians" were building cart trails from Red Deer to Bentley, Leedale, Rimbey, Buck Lake and Rocky Mountain House at their own time and expense. At Hobbema Head Chief Bobtail declared Martial Law, to keep hostilities out of the community. Indians and Metis set up volunteer Home Guard milita units, volunteered as Scouts and Guides, and made up the bulk of the freighters, with their carts and wagons. For this they were paid and rewarded by the Government of Canada. In no way were they hostile. As for the celebrated Fort Normandeau, it was abandoned before the militia finished construction. They went home, turning the fort over to a couple of Mounted Policemen to become the detatchment's base. We have on brought this to the attention of the sponsors Normandeau Days on several occasions (and even offered to finance more realistic events) Red Deer Perverts Metis & Indian History without effect. Rather, they prefer to slander both aboriginal history and true history and insist on playing Cowboys and Indians (in which, of course, the hositle savages are soundly beaten and sent packing by the glorious white man). CALGARY STAMPEDE DISSES INDIANS For the past 100 years the Calgary Stamped has been cashing in on presenting Alberta Indians as a stereotypical Tourism Attraction which is not an accurate depiction of our aboriginal history. Instead of the rich history of the aboriginal peoples in Alberta, the Calgary Stampede only prefers to show a one-dimesional stereotype that has never really existed in Alberta. In 2011 the Calgary Stamped announced that it would give special recognition to the contribution that the aboriginal peoples had made to the Calgary area. Since the Calgary Stampede had only shown a phony stereotype, and had never recognized the real contributions made by the aboriginal community - and has never given any recognition at all to the Cree people, the Mountain Cree requested that, since the Calgary Stampede had stated that they intended to recognize such contributions, requested that the Calgary Stampede also recognize the contributions made by the Cree. To paraphrase the Calgary Stampede reaction
"Never, come Hell or High Water!"
So what was the Cree contribution? Well, the Cree have been in the Calgary area since at least 1650 A.D. - 150 years before the Blackfoot came into the area, and 200 years before the Nakoda and Sarcee, who the chose to recognize. In fact, before the White Man came to settle this part of Alberta, the Cree already had a dozen frontier settlements in the area and maintained a mail-drop system between Edmonton and Fort Benton, Montana. By this time the Cree had ceased to be the nomadic buffalo hunters of myth, and had to a large degree become subsistence homesteaders and small businessmen. The Calgary settlement, founded around 1870, had a population of 200 persons (and two churches) when the first white settlers (the Mounted Police) came. The settlement stretched south to High River and west to Morley, and included Alberta's first horse ranch, several trading posts and two Inns/Stopping Houses. By this time the Cree had already opened a wagon road from Edmonton and Victoria Settlement south into Montana. When Calgary became a townsite in 1876 the first land title holders were members of the Cree community. Some of the first businesses were owned by Cree metis. In short order a Cree metis established the first freightline service and stagecoach service between Calgary and Edmonton. South of town they established the first irrigation system in Alberta and the first hog operation in Alberta. But this is not the image that the Calgary Stampede wants to recognize. They prefer to promote the Indian as the Noble Savage, with quaint and colorful dances, tipis and clothing. Civilized Indians are an anathema to the Stampede. It does not fit into the Wild West image that they wish to promote. (By the way, did you know that most of the Chuckwagon drivers and riders are native or part native?) CULTURAL MUSEUMS Northwest Plains Interpretive and Research Center Our On-Line Museum ------------------------------------------------------------------- | NATIVE CULTURAL MUSEUMS RATINGS (scale of 10) | |-------------------------------------------------------------------| |10 Moundbuilder Sites - Undeveloped but original in-situ and | | undisturbed sites; mounds, temple | | platforms, altars, house mounds, | | garden plots. By arrangement only and | | of limited restricted access for | | site protection. 50 sites, 8 major | | site complexes. (* in part) | | 8 Glenbow (Calgary, AB) - Good material, uninteresting displays | | 8 Luxton (Banff, AB) - Great displays but slipping | | 6 Headsmashed In Buffalo Jump (Ft. Macleod, AB) - nice site but | | blah interpretation & displays | | 6 Provincial (Edmonton, AB) - Not worth a special trip | | 3 Grouard College (Grouard, AB) - Once Upon a Time nice | | contemporary crafts. Gone downhill | | since | | 3 Portave College (Lac La Biche, AB) - I'm guessing; havn't | | been there in years (I was the founder | but have heard poor reviews by | | visitors. | | 2 Ft. Macleod (Ft. Macleod, AB) - mostly Mounted Police stuff | | 1 Ft. Calgary (Calgary, AB) - Not worth a special trip | | 1 Ft. Whoop-Up (Lethbridge, AB) - No worthwhile displays and had | | their tipis put up wrong last time | | we were there | | 1 Rocky Lane Community Museum (* sort of) | | (Rocky Lane School, Ft. Vermilion, AB) - put together and | | maintained by the kids (largely Native) | which alone makes it unique. An excel-| | lent collection for a small community,| | and not your typical small-town stuff.| | Not really native-oriented, but since | | the entire community has native roots,| | a good snapshot of their rural roots | | over the past 300 years. Stop in if | | you are in the area. | | 1 Rocky Mountain House National Historic Site | | Quality workmanship. Native interpre- | | tation is neglegible, superficial and | | only marginally accurate | | 1 Bentley (Bentley, AB) - Typical small-town museum, but with a | | little bit of soul. At least a nominal| | attempt to interpret some Native hist.| | Since it is one of the most historic | | native areas in the province, it fails| | miserably in depicting it. | | Failing Grade for: | | On the doorstep of one of the most | | significant native cultural/religious | | locals, but resolutely refuses to | | recognize it or mention it. | | 1 Donalda (Donalda, AB) - Disturbing. The museum has excellent | | potential to work jointly wint native | | investors in developing local inter- | | pretive programing. However, the | | Province of Albera, Alberta Culture, | | has informed them that IF ANY AGENCY | | IN DONALDA CO-OPERATES WITH ANY | | NATIVE INVESTORS THEY WILL LOSE THEIR | | ALBERTA CULTURE FUNDING FOR THE MUSEUM| | and other community programs. | | As a result the community has dropped | | all co-operation with Natives. | | 0 Rocky Mountain House Historic Site (Rocky Mountain House, AB) | | - poor to nonexistent presentation of | | the Indian/Metis history of the post | | and going downhill. Not worth a stop. | | 0 Tsuu T'Ina * (Calgary, AB) - Marginally interesting | | 0 Hobbema * (Hobbema, AB) You have one ? | | 0 Saddle Lake* (Saddle Lake, AB) - Sucks. Not worth stopping for.| | Saddly never lived up to the plans and| | expectations we had in 1979. Better | | collections in the Pawn Shop. | | 0 Red Deer (Red Deer, AB) Nothing to see. Starts with the basic | | assumption that there is no such thing| | as aboriginal history in the Red Deer | | area. Red Deer is celebrating 100 | | years as a town (it started as a Metis| | settlement & had a Moundbuilder site).| | There was a proposal to develop a | | book on the prehistory of the Red | | Deer area (research already done), but| | there was no interest in such a | | project by Red Deer. | | Several years ago the City agreed to | | put up commemorative plaques for some | | cultural sites they destroyed, but | | have now reneged on that pledge. | | A fake Medicine Wheel (boulder ring) | | as been set up in one of the parks | | but it was not done in the proper | | manner or with consulation and consent| | of the Cree, Blackfoot or Nakoda | | Nations who's lands these area. | |-------------------------------------------------------------------| | * Indian owned & operated | ------------------------------------------------------------------- Want to promote your museum better? Send us your info and photos. Three private collections in Alberta each have more native artifacts than either the Provincial or Glenbow museums. A Moundbuilder Site (Complex #1, mounds, tipi rings, burials, etc.)
------------------------------------------------------------------- | NATIVE CULTURAL PROGRAMS RATINGS (scale of 10) | |-------------------------------------------------------------------| | 6 University of Lethbridge - Marginal and mainly Blackfoot | | 2 Portage College (Lac La Biche, AB) | | This is the program I founded in 1976 | | (along with the Grouard program). It | | has gone saddly downhill since and is | | now little more than a basic crafts | | program. | | 1 University of Alberta (Edmonton, AB) | | This is the institute that considers | | Col. Sam Steele (guilty of war crimes,| | murder and ordering massacres against | | against the Native community in the | | 1885 Rebellion), a real western hero. | | 0 University of Calgary (Calgary, AB) | | Nowdays offers only 2 Native Culture/ | | history courses. | | 0 Bayshore College (Grouard, AB) | | Founded by the author along with the | | Lac La Biche program in 1976. Now | | defunct. | | 0 Various on-reserve Cultural Programs. All are parochial and | | very limited in nature with few, if | | any suitably trained and educated | | staff. Most are only marginally | | functional. | |-------------------------------------------------------------------| | * Indian owned & operated | -------------------------------------------------------------------
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718 - TOM OJO - CANADA 1-403-885-2991